The Gestapo - A History of Hitler's Secret Police, 1933-45, Rupert Butler

The Gestapo - A History of Hitler's Secret Police, 1933-45, Rupert Butler



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The Gestapo - A History of Hitler's Secret Police, 1933-45, Rupert Butler

The Gestapo - A History of Hitler's Secret Police, 1933-45, Rupert Butler

The Gestapo was one of the most infamous elements of the Nazi regime, a secret police force that was formed in Germany soon after the Nazis came to power, but that later spread across occupied Europe. The stereotyped image of the Gestapo man is of a sinister figure in a leather trench coat, but of course the reality was more complex, with most Gestapo officers being pre-Nazi police officers, and their undercover agents a bit more subtle than that!

Much of the time this doesn't feel like a history of the Gestapo, but instead more of a general account of Nazi activities. Part of the problem is that the book focuses on the 'greatest hits' - the career and assassination of Heydrich, Stauffenberg's attempt to assassinate Hitler, the Röhm purge and so forth. Perhaps the real problem is that the Gestapo had such wide ranging powers across Germany and occupied Europe that this book isn’t really big enough to cover both the most famous aspects of the Gestapo's history and its more mundane day-to-day activities. What we get is a good overview of German repression across Europe, but I would have liked more on the lower level activities of the Gestapo - the sort of material that doesn't get covered in general histories of the war.

This is a good introduction to the topic, covering the formation and structure of the Gestapo, and giving a good idea of just how widely its tentacles spread across Europe. The areas that are covered are dealt with well. Those with more background knowledge will probably find it a bit limiting, covering topics that are already familiar.

Chapters
1 - Foundations
2 - Rivalry
3 - Heydrich Takes Over
4 - Tightening the Grip
5 - The War Begins
6 - The Occupied Territories
7 - Stamping Out Resistance
8 - The End of the Reich

Author: Rupert Butler
Edition: Paperback
Pages: 192
Publisher: Amber
Year: 2015 edition of 2004 original



The Gestapo: A History of Hitler's Secret Police

É bem ilustrado, tem quadros para explicar melhor algumas coisas, mas achei meio enfadonho. Tanto que havia começado a ler anos atrás e abandonei, mas como não gosto de abandonar livros, resolvi recomeçar.

O conteúdo em si é interessante, tem bastante informação sobre a Gestapo, a SS, também sobre o alto comando nazista. Porém, a ordem das coisas é um pouco confusa, às vezes ao descrever uma organização ou pessoa o autor vai até lá na frente, tipo 1942, para depois voltar pra 1933. Então, não ach É bem ilustrado, tem quadros para explicar melhor algumas coisas, mas achei meio enfadonho. Tanto que havia começado a ler anos atrás e abandonei, mas como não gosto de abandonar livros, resolvi recomeçar.

O conteúdo em si é interessante, tem bastante informação sobre a Gestapo, a SS, também sobre o alto comando nazista. Porém, a ordem das coisas é um pouco confusa, às vezes ao descrever uma organização ou pessoa o autor vai até lá na frente, tipo 1942, para depois voltar pra 1933. Então, não achei que as ideias ficaram bem encadeadas. Não sei se a culpa dessa (des)organização é do autor, ou da editora do Brasil, que pode ter mexido um pouco nas coisas ao dividir o livro em dois volumes.


Contents

The original plan, designed to deal with internal disturbances in emergency situations, was developed by General Friedrich Olbricht's staff in his capacity as head of General Army Office and was approved by Hitler. [1]

Coup-oriented revisions Edit

The idea of using the Reserve Army in the German homeland for a potential coup existed before, but apart from Hitler himself, only Colonel-General Friedrich Fromm, Chief of the Reserve Army since 1938, could initiate Operation Valkyrie. Fromm's refusal to co-operate in a prospective coup posed a serious obstacle to the conspirators. Nevertheless, after the lessons of a failed assassination attempt on 13 March 1943, Olbricht felt that the original coup plan was inadequate and that the Reserve Army should be used in the coup even without Fromm's co-operation.

The original Valkyrie order only dealt with a strategy to ensure combat readiness of units among scattered elements of the Reserve Army. Olbricht added a second part, 'Valkyrie II', which provided for the swift mustering of units into battle groups ready for action.

In August and September 1943, Henning von Tresckow found Olbricht's revision inadequate, and thus greatly expanded the Valkyrie plan and drafted new supplementary orders. A secret declaration began with the words: "The Führer Adolf Hitler is dead! A treacherous group of party leaders has attempted to exploit the situation by attacking our embattled soldiers from the rear to seize power for themselves".

Detailed instructions were written for the occupation of government ministries in Berlin, of Himmler's headquarters in East Prussia, of radio stations, of telephone exchanges, of other Nazi infrastructure through military districts and of concentration camps. [1] (Previously, it was believed that Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg was mainly responsible for the Valkyrie plan, but documents recovered by the Soviet Union after the war and released in 2007 suggest that a detailed plan was developed by Tresckow in autumn 1943.) [2] All documents were handled by Tresckow's wife, Erika, and by Margarete von Oven, his secretary. Both women wore gloves to leave no fingerprints. [3]

In essence, the coup plan involved tricking the Reserve Army into the seizure and removal of the civilian government of wartime Germany under the false pretence that the SS had attempted a coup and assassinated Hitler. The conspirators depended on the assumption that the rank-and-file soldiers and junior officers designated to execute Operation Valkyrie would be motivated to do so on the basis of their false belief that the Nazi civilian leadership had behaved with disloyalty and treason against the state, and were therefore required to be removed. The conspirators counted on the soldiers to obey their orders as long as they came from the legitimate channel—namely, the Reserve Army High Command—in the emergency situation following Hitler's putative death.

Apart from Hitler, only Colonel-General Friedrich Fromm, as commander of the Reserve Army, could activate Operation Valkyrie. For the planned coup to succeed, therefore, the plotters had either to win Fromm over to the conspiracy or to neutralize him in some way. Fromm, like many senior officers, largely knew about the military conspiracies against Hitler, but neither supported them nor reported them to the Gestapo.

The key role in its actual implementation was played by Colonel Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg, after his assassination attempt on Hitler on 20 July 1944. Stauffenberg also further improved the Valkyrie plan and made changes to address changing situations. Stauffenberg's position as Chief of Staff of the Reserve Army gave him access to Hitler for reports and at the same time required his presence at headquarters for implementation of Valkyrie. At first, Tresckow and Stauffenberg sought out other officers with access to Hitler who could carry out the assassination. [4]

General Helmuth Stieff, Chief of Organization in Army High Command, volunteered to be the assassin but later backed down. Tresckow attempted several times to be assigned to Hitler's headquarters without success. Finally, Stauffenberg decided to carry out both the assassination attempt and the Valkyrie operation, which greatly reduced the chance of success. After two abortive attempts, Stauffenberg placed the bomb on 20 July and hurried back to Berlin to assume his pivotal role.

Discovering from Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel that the bomb had not killed Hitler, Fromm refused to initiate Valkyrie, only to know that General Friedrich Olbricht had initiated in his name refusing to co-operate, he was removed and arrested by the conspirators and replaced by General Erich Hoepner. Meanwhile, Carl-Heinrich von Stülpnagel, military governor of occupied France, managed to disarm the SD and SS, and captured most of their leadership. He travelled to Günther von Kluge's headquarters and asked him to contact the Allies, only to be informed that Hitler was alive.

By this time Reichsfüher-SS Heinrich Himmler had taken charge of the situation and had issued orders countermanding Olbricht's mobilisation of Operation Valkyrie. This led to the failure of the coup, with most of the commanding officers learning that Hitler was alive and cancelling their operations.

When it was clear that the coup had failed, the less resolute members of the conspiracy in Berlin began to change sides. Fromm was freed from his detention room and, after a brief fight, he managed to regain control of the Bendlerblock. In a desperate attempt to cover his involvement, he ordered the executions of General Friedrich Olbricht, his chief of staff Colonel Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim, Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg and his adjutant Lieutenant Werner von Haeften. Shortly after midnight, the condemned men were led to a mound of earth back-lit by idling vehicles where each was executed by firing squad in the courtyard of Bendlerstraße headquarters, the street has been renamed Stauffenbergstraße in honour of Colonel Stauffenberg. Further executions were forbidden following the arrival of Waffen-SS personnel under the command of Obersturmbannfüher Otto Skorzeny. [5]

I. The Führer Adolf Hitler is dead!

An unscrupulous clique of party leaders alien to the front has attempted, under the exploitation of this situation, to betray the hard-struggling front and to seize power for their own selfish purposes.

II. In this hour of greatest danger, the government of the Reich has declared a state of military emergency for the maintenance of law and order and at the same time has transferred the executive power, with the supreme command of the Wehrmacht, to me.

III. With this, I order:

1. Transfer of executive power – with the right of delegation, to the territorial commanders – on the home front, to the commander of the army reserves under the simultaneous appointment to the supreme commander in the homeland war – in the occupied western area, to the supreme commander west – in Italy, to the supreme commander southwest – in the occupied eastern area, to the supreme commander of the army groups and the commander of the Wehrmacht eastern land for their respective area of command – in Denmark and Norway, to the Wehrmacht commander. 2. The holders of executive power have control over: a) all sections and units of the Wehrmacht, including the Waffen-SS, RAD and the OT, within their area of command b) all public authorities (of the Reich, Germany, the states and the municipalities), especially the entire law enforcement police, security police and administrative police c) all office bearers and subdivisions of the NSDAP and those of its affiliated associations d) the transportation services and public utilities 3. The entire Waffen-SS is integrated into the army with immediate effect. 4. The holders of executive power are responsible for the maintenance of public order and security. They especially have to ensure: a) the protection of communications b) the elimination of the SD (Security Service).

Any opposition to the military power of enforcement is to be ruthlessly crushed.
In this hour of highest danger for the Fatherland, unity of the Wehrmacht and the maintenance of full discipline are the uppermost requirements.

That is why I make it the duty of all commanders of the army, the navy and the air force to support the holders of executive power in carrying out their difficult task with all means at their disposal and to guarantee the compliance of their directives by the subordinate sections. The German soldier stands before a historical task. It will depend on his energy and attitude whether Germany will be saved.


The Gestapo | Rupert Butler | A tool to support the 'arbitrary state' of the 'dual state'

Okhrana in the Empire Russian era, since the revolution of October 1917, the Soviet Union Cheka and KGB, the third empire Gestapo(Geheime Staatspolizei) and after the Second World War following the Second World War, under the autocratic regime such as Stasi of East Germany, the hungry dog Following faithfully, like on the other hand, there are secret police that acted as a tool of violence to maintain the administration. It was the main task to detect and block these slight anti-systematic crimes, but utilize the ambiguity of 'anti-systematic' definition and interpretation to monitor the citizens' every move forward did. If anyone took over their fine mesh, composed of numerous sources and pushers, that person disappeared in the life of neighbors or friends, neither mice nor birds knew. And as I said, neighbors and friends also did not find the vanished person or the family dare. Since even the laws that stood before these were colorless, once they had to endure the severe torture with sounds that were hidden on them, for example sounds that were trapped in a humid cell lacking all light, food, etc and tried not to try . Still it was fortunate to survive without dying.

『The Gestapo: A History of Hitler's Secret Police 1933-45 by Rupert Butler』 This book is the book of the secret police Gestapo of the Third Empire, notoriously as the enforcer of the Holocaust. Prussia Attention Internal Prime Minister Hermann Wilhelm Göring began to political police in the Prussian state police to the idea, Gestapo was handed over to the helper leader Heinrich Luitpold Himmler, separated from the internal affairs administration and is institutionally independent. Hitler left himself directly to exercise a powerful power agency indispensable for maintaining the structure or to load him(Himmler etc.) to give personal loyalty to him. This made the 'power of the leader' existing outside the party and the state realized by positioning 'private leader - believer's relationship' as the structural element of the power organization, which is the behavior unique to Nazism . 'General Bureau of Construction of Tote Bag' and 'Armed Guards' are examples of special power authorities connected directly to Hitler separately from the Nazi party and the state, while also laying the foundation of the Nazi party and the state(reference: 『The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich by Martin Broszat』)

Jewish Ernst Fraenkel, who was a labor law scholar in the Weimar Republic and acted as a trade union specialist and exiled to the United States in 1938, published his own book 『The Dual State: A Contribution to the Theory of Dictatorship』 to grasp that the Nazis state was 'Normative state'' and at the same time was 'Arbitrary state'. The normative state is a country indispensable for the Nazi regime to function capitalistically as a legalistic state based on the consistency with the legal norms, and the arbitrary nation is an exorbitant means(reference: 『The Hitler State: The Foundation and Development of the Internal Structure of the Third Reich by Martin Broszat』).

It was precisely an important device to suppress Gestapo as an 'Arbitrary state' against the Nazis' opposing power as an extrinsic means. They were able to steadily progress 'Final solution' of the Jewish problem as efficiently as a company planning and mass producing products.

Not only the Third Reich, Eastern Germany, the former Soviet Union, but all governments are secret institutions like South Korea's National Intelligence Service (NIS) that actively deal with intrigue and threats that fail to overthrow the national order I have one by one. But Butler says that the more government dictatorships, the more the way they use them, the more likely it will be tough harshness. Even without dare to go back to the Gestapo era, when you recall Park, Mr. Park, The Central Intelligence Agency at the time of the Doo Hwan dictatorship, and the National Security Planning Agency, you can know that the words are not mistaken. And when I talk about secret police story, I think of the harsh torture of curse which was done in various ways such as speaking for infinite creativity of human being who diverges in any field. However, the point that I care about the real unbearable point is the fact that high characters are family members, and sometimes they are the fathers of families who put up to their children. When these counselors are completed, they go back home like any employee and work hard so that they touch a beautiful wife and a cute child and dine together. How can such a thing be possible? How can you forget to wash your blood easily like this? Can we consider tantalizing as a taste like other things that are routinely repeated even by insulting one person and torturing them?

J. M. Coetzee's 『Waiting for the barbarians』 has been tortured "and" I seriously ask a person who tortured me (in the same sense as I hold a doubt) a question.

The question was the same as my expectation as to the answer of the person who received the wonder.


‘Executioner of Lidice’ Karl Frank Faces War Crime Charges

On 24 March, Czechoslovakia's People's Court in Prague finalised charges of war crimes against Karl Hermann Frank. One of the gravest episodes of the indictment was the mass execution of the villagers of Lidice and Ležáky.

A Sudeten German, Frank was a supporter of the annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany, and gradually became a Nazi fanatic. Following the annexation of Czechoslovakia by the Reich in 1938, he proved himself a brilliant career-maker, joining the NSDAP and finding favour with Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler. In 1939, he was promoted to SS-Gruppenführer and headed the Nazi police apparatus in Prague.

After the assassination attempt on Reinhard Heydrich in May 1942, Acting Reich-Protector of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, Frank was in charge of the “retaliation operation”: under his command, the Nazis completely destroyed the Czech villages of Lidice and Ležáky and executed 1,331 people, including 201 women, without trial across the country.

In August 1943 he was appointed Minister of State for the Reich Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. Authority in the protectorate de facto belonged to Frank. Himmler gave him the power to order executions without trial. As early as 1 May 1945, Frank threatened the people of Prague by radio that he would “drown any uprising in a sea of blood”.

On 9 May 1945, Frank fled Prague to surrender to the Western Allies. He was supposed to become a defendant at the Nuremberg trials but was handed over to the new authorities in Czechoslovakia. In court, he tried to shift responsibility for the Lidice massacre onto Hitler, but the Americans provided the Court with Frank's secret archive, which they had discovered in a mine near the Czech village of Štehovice. Hundreds of orders for executions, arrests, and deportations to concentration camps bore his handwritten signature.

On 21 May 1946, Frank was sentenced to death and hanged on 22 May 1946 in the courtyard of Pankrác Prison in Prague before 5,000 onlookers.

“The Gestapo: A History of Hitler's Secret Police 1933–45” by Rupert Butler

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Gestapo. Istoria poliţiei secrete a lui Hitler

É bem ilustrado, tem quadros para explicar melhor algumas coisas, mas achei meio enfadonho. Tanto que havia começado a ler anos atrás e abandonei, mas como não gosto de abandonar livros, resolvi recomeçar.

O conteúdo em si é interessante, tem bastante informação sobre a Gestapo, a SS, também sobre o alto comando nazista. Porém, a ordem das coisas é um pouco confusa, às vezes ao descrever uma organização ou pessoa o autor vai até lá na frente, tipo 1942, para depois voltar pra 1933. Então, não ach É bem ilustrado, tem quadros para explicar melhor algumas coisas, mas achei meio enfadonho. Tanto que havia começado a ler anos atrás e abandonei, mas como não gosto de abandonar livros, resolvi recomeçar.

O conteúdo em si é interessante, tem bastante informação sobre a Gestapo, a SS, também sobre o alto comando nazista. Porém, a ordem das coisas é um pouco confusa, às vezes ao descrever uma organização ou pessoa o autor vai até lá na frente, tipo 1942, para depois voltar pra 1933. Então, não achei que as ideias ficaram bem encadeadas. Não sei se a culpa dessa (des)organização é do autor, ou da editora do Brasil, que pode ter mexido um pouco nas coisas ao dividir o livro em dois volumes.


Are you an author?

From its creation in 1933 until Hitler's death in May 1945, anyone living in Nazi-controlled territory lived in fear of a visit from the Gestapo – an abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei – or secret state police. Young or old, rich or poor, nobody was beyond the attentions of a brutally efficient organization that spread its malign influence into every corner of Europe in the wake of the all-conquering German armed forces.

The Gestapo offers a detailed history of this evil operation – commanded for much of its life by the SS chief Heinrich Himmler – whose 20,000 members were responsible for the internal security of the Reich. Under its auspices, hundreds of thousands of civilians, resistance fighters and spies in occupied Europe were brutalized, tortured and murdered, and many, many more were deported to almost certain death in concentration camps. Based upon the Gestapo's own archives and eye-witness accounts, the author charts the development of the organization, its key figures, such as Reinhard Heydrich, its brutal methods, and how the Gestapo dealt with internal security, including the various unsuccessful attempts to assassinate Hitler.

The book is a lively and expert account of this notorious but little-understood secret police that terrorized hundreds of thousands of people across Europe.


Watch the video: The story of Hitlers secret police Gestapo