Timeline 1800-1809

Timeline 1800-1809


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1800

20 April

The combat of Bormida (20 April 1800) saw the failure of an attempt by General Suchet to regain contact with the main body of the French Army of Italy around Genoa.

2 May

The combat of Borghetto (2 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that saw them force Suchet and the left wing of the Army of Italy to retreat further away from contact with the rest of the army at Genoa.

6 or 7 May

The combat of the Col de Tende (6 or 7 May 1800) was an Austrian victory that forced the French to abandon a defensive position in the pass that marks the border between the Maritime and Ligurian Alps and retreat back towards Nice.

7 May

The combat of Oneglia (7 May 1800) was one of a series of minor Austrian victories that forced the left wing of the French Army of Italy under General Suchet to abandon their last positions on the Italian Riviera and retreat behind the Var River

12-28 May

The combats on the Var of 13-28 May 1800 marked the high point of Austrian success during the fighting in Italy in 1800, and saw an Austrian force under Melas and Elsnitz attempt to destroy Suchet's left wing of the French Army of Italy.

18 May

The combat of Châtillon (18 May 1800) was a French victory early in the campaign that ended at Marengo

21 May-2 June

The siege of Fort Bard (21 May-2 June 1800) saw a small Austrian garrison hold up the passage of Napoleon's artillery during the French advance into Italy at the start of the campaign that ended at Marengo.

24 May

The combat of Ivrea (24 May 1800) was a French victory during Napoleon's advance into Italy early in the campaign that ended at Marengo.

26 May

The battle of Romano-Chiusella (26 May 1800) was a French victory that saw their advance guard under Lannes force the Austrians to retreat from the Chiusella River back towards Turin, and that helped convince the Austrian commanders that Napoleon was heading south towards Genoa

31 May

The combat of Turbigo (31 May 1800) was a French victory that cleared the way for Napoleon to enter Milan and split the Austrian armies in northern Italy in two

1-2 June

The combat of Breglio (1-2 June 1800) was a minor French victory (Suchet) that forced the Austrians (Elsnitz) to retreat from the Col de Tende, his best line of retreat from France into Italy.

2 June

End of siege of Fort Bard (21 May-2 June 1800)

3 June

The combat of Forcoin (3 June 1800) was a minor French victory during the fighting in the maritime Alps in 1800 that saw the Austrians forced out of a position in the mountains east of the Roya River.

9 June

The battle of Casteggio-Montebello (9 June 1800) was a hard fought French victory that came as the main French and Austrian armies in Piedmont were closing in on each other in the build-up to the battle of Marengo

13 June

The combat of Marengo (13 June 1800) was a minor French victory on the evening before the battle of Marengo that badly disrupted the Austrian plans for the following day by giving the French command of a crucial bridge in the village of Marengo.

14 June

The battle of Marengo (14 June 1800) was a major French victory that helped to secure Napoleon's power as First Consul as well as expelling the Austrians from most of Italy

1802

27 March

Peace of Amiens, treaty that led to a short lived peace between Britain and France.

1805

8 October

The combat of Wertingen (8 October 1805) was the first significant fighting of the Ulm campaign, and saw part of the French advance guard defeat an Austrian column ten miles to the south of the Danube.

9 October

The combat of Gunzburg (9 October 1805) saw a French corps under Marshal Ney capture the bridge over the Danube at Gunzburg, tightening the French noose around Mack's Austrian army at Ulm and also delaying a planned Austrian offensive north of the river.

11 October

The battle of Albeck (11 October 1805) saw a badly outnumbered French force hold its own against an Austrian column attempting to escape from Ulm (War of the Third Coalition).

14 October

The battle of Elchingen (14 October 1805) saw the French fight their way from the south to the north bank of the Danube, making up for a misjudgement on Napoleon's part and also thwarting an Austrian attempt to escape from Ulm.

16 October

The combat of Michelberg (16 October 1805) saw the French push the Austrians out of a key position outside Ulm, making the surrender at Ulm of 20 October almost inevitable.

20 October

Battle of Ulm, French victory over Austrians (Napoleonic Wars)

21 October

Battle of Trafalgar, decisive British naval victory over combined French and Spanish fleets

5 November

The battle of Amstetten (5 November 1805) was one of a number of rearguard actions fought as General Kutuzov attempted to elude Napoleon in the aftermath of the Austrian surrender at Ulm.

11 November

The battle of Durnstein (11 November 1805) saw an isolated French force north of the Danube come close to being destroyed by a much larger Austro-Russian Army, before French reinforcements saved the day.

15-16 November

The combat of Hollabrunn (15-16 November 1805) was a delaying action fought by the Russian that helped prevent Napoleon from trapping Kutuzov's army before it could join up with another Russian army approaching from the north.

2 December

The battle of Austerlitz (2 December 1805), or the Battle of the Three Emperors, was one of Napoleon's most impressive victories and saw him inflict a crushing defeat on an Austro-Russian army, in the process knocking Austrian out of the War of the Third Coalition.

15 December

The Convention of Schönbrünn (15 December 1805) was an alliance between Prussia and France forced on the Prussians in the aftermath of Napoleon's great victory at Austerlitz.

1806

16 February

The combat of Ostrolenka (16 February 1807) was a minor French victory won on the right flank of their long front in Poland, and ended a Russian attempt to push the French back in the south.The War of the Fourth Coalition (1806-1807) saw Napoleon defeat Prussia at Jena and Auerstädt in 1806, and Russia at Friedland in 1807, and the resulting Peace of Tilsit marked the high point of Napoleon's power.

9 October

The battle of Schleiz (9 October 1806) was a minor clash early in the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw the French defeat an isolated detachment on the left of the Prussian army.

10 October

The battle of Saalfeld (10 October 1806) was the first major clash during the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw a French column defeat a smaller Prussian force under Prince Louis Ferdinand

14 October

The battle of Auerstädt (14 October 1806) was the most important of two simultaneous French victories over the Prussians and saw Marshal Davoût with a single corps defeat the main body of the Prussian army while further south Napoleon with most of the Grand Armée defeated the smaller Prussian flank guard at Jena.

The battle of Jena (14 October 1806) was one of two simultaneous battles won by the French on the same day and saw Napoleon with most of the Grand Armée defeat the Prussian flank guard at Jena while Marshal Davout defeated the main Prussian force further north at Auerstädt.

17 October

The battle of Halle (17 October 1806) was a French victory over the intact Prussian reserve army in the aftermath of the battles of Jena and Auerstädt.

2o October-11 November

The siege of Magdeburg (20 October-11 November 1806) came in the aftermath of the twin French victories at Jena and Auerstädt, and the surrender of the city marked the end of significant Prussian resistance in 1806.

21 November

Napolean announced the Continental System, aimed at defeating Great Britain through a trade blockade of the continent.

23 December

The combat of Czarnowo (23 December 1806) saw the French establish a bridgehead on the east bank of the River Ukra, at the point where it flows into the River Bug (War of the Fourth Coalition).

The combat of Biezun (23 December 1806) saw the defeat of a Prussian attempt to recapture Biezun on the Ukra River, a key position that connected the Prussians to their Russian allies.

26 December

The battle of Pultusk (26 December 1806) was one of two inconclusive battles fought on the same day between French and Russian forces, and was one of the first hints that the Russians might be a difficult opponent for Napoleon.

The battle of Golymin (26 December 1806) was one of two inconclusive battles fought between French and Russian armies in the Prussian partition of Poland on the same night.

1807

25 January

The combat of Mohrungen (25 January 1807) saw Bernadotte's corps defeat part of a Russian army that was attempting to attack the isolated left wing of Napoleon's army in Poland in the winter of 1806-7.

3 February

The battle of Jonkowo (3 February 1807) was an inconclusive battle that allowed the Russians to escape from a trap set for them by Napoleon after the Russians attempted to attack the left flank of the French army in Prussia.

6 February

The combat of Hof (6 February 1807) was a rearguard action fought between the Russian rearguard under Barclay de Tolly and the advancing French during the Russian retreat before the battle of Eylau.

8 February

The battle of Eylau (8 February 1807) was the first major setback suffered by Napoleon on the battlefield and was a costly inconclusive battle fought in the snow in East Prussia.

14 June

The battle of Friedland (14 June 1807) was the final battle of the War of the Fourth Coalition, and was a major French victory that forced Tsar Alexander to begin peace talks.

7 & 9 July

The two treaties of Tilsit (7 and 9 July 1807) ended the War of the Fourth Coalition and saw Napoleon impose very different terms on the Russians and Prussians.

November

Outbreak of Peninsular War (1807-14), part of Napoleonic War

1808

29 February

French troops capture the citadel of citadel of Pamplona, the first of a series of surprise attacks on Spanish border fortifications.

16 February

French troops take the Barcelona by trickery.

5 March

The Spanish fortress of San Sebastian surrenders to the French

18 March

French troops take the citadel of Figueras by trickery

7 June

The battle of Alcolea was a French victory early in the Peninsular War won over an army of Spanish volunteers outside Cordova

The sack of Cordova was an early indication of the ferocity which would be a distinguishing feature of the Spanish uprising against French Rule

8 June

The action at Tudela of was the first of three attempts by the Spanish to defeat or delay a French army that was marching towards Saragossa.

12 June

The battle of Cabezon was a crushing French victory won against an inexperienced Spanish army under the command of captain-general Don Gregorio de la Cuesta.

13 June

The action at Mallen was the second of three Spanish attempts to stop a French army under General Lefebvre-Desnouettes from reaching Saragossa.

14 June

The battle of Alagon was the third of three attempts made by Joseph Palafox, the captain-general of Aragon, to stop a French column under General Lefebvre-Desnouettes from reaching Saragossa.

15 June

The first siege of Saragossa, (to 14 August 1808), saw the Spanish successfully defend the almost unfortified city against a strong French attack, and was an early demonstration of the determination with which the Spanish would defend some of their cities.

17 June

The storm of Mataro was a minor French victory that came just before General Duhesme’s first attempt to capture Gerona in June 1808.

20-21 June

The first siege of Gerona was the first of three French attempts to seize this city, which blocked their lines of communication between Barcelona and Perpignan

21 June

The action at the River Cabriels saw a French army under Marshal Moncey sweep aside part of a small Spanish force that had been left to watch the northern route between Madrid and Valencia.

23-24 June

The action of Epila was a night battle that saw the French defeat a Spanish force attempting to raise the first siege of Saragossa.

24 June

The action at the Cabrillas Defile saw the defeat of the last Spanish attempt to stop a French army under Marshal Moncey from reaching Valencia.

26-28 June

The first battle of Valencia was one of a series of Spanish victories early in the Peninsular War. A French force under Marshal Moncey launched two assaults against the defenders of Valencia and was repulsed twice.

14 July

The battle of Medina del Rio Seco was a French victory early in the Peninsular War won by Marshal Bessiéres against a much larger Spanish army.

19 July

The battle of Baylen was a crucial Spanish victory early in the Peninsular War that encouraged both Spanish resistance and Napoleon’s enemies across Europe.

24 July-16 August

The second siege of Gerona was a second unsuccessful French attempt to capture the city of Gerona

29 July

The battle of Evora was a French victory during the Portuguese rebellion of 1808.

August-17 December 1808

The siege of Barcelona was one of the great missed opportunities of the Peninsular War - for over four months large Spanish armies sat inactive around the city, until driven away by a French relief force under St. Cyr

14 August

End of the first siege of Saragossa (from 15 June) when the French abandon the siege.

17 August

The battle of Rolica was the first battle during the British involvement in the Peninsular War, and the first victory for Sir Arthur Wellesley (the future duke of Wellington)

21 August

The battle of Vimiero was the decisive battle of the first British expedition to Portugal during the Peninsular War and saw Arthur Wellesley defeat a French attack on his position

22 August

Convention of Cintra, allowing French troops to evacuate Portugal

31 October

The battle of Zornoza of was a French victory that came just before the start of Napoleon’s campaign in Spain in November 1808.

6 November-5 December

The siege of Rosas was the first engagement during General Gouvion St. Cyr’s campaign in Catalonia in the winter of 1808.

8 November

The skirmish at Valmeceda was a minor French victory in the aftermath of their victory at Zornoza on 31 October 1808.

10 November

The battle of Gamonel was the first French victory during Napoleon’s November 1808 campaign in Spain.

10-11 November

The battle of Espinosa de los Monteros was a major French victory during Napoleon’s November 1808 campaign in Spain.

23 November

The battle of Tudela was a major French victory that sealed the success of Napoleon’s great plan of double-envelopment during the one campaign he conducted in person in Spain.

30 November

The battle of the Somosierra Pass was the final Spanish attempt to stop Napoleon reaching Madrid during his 1808 campaign in Spain.

1-4 December

The siege of Madrid was the final French success during Napoleon’s only campaign in Spain.

16 December

The battle of Cardadeu was a French victory that ended the Spanish siege of Barcelona.

17 December

French troops raise the siege of Barcelona

20 December

The second siege of Saragossa ( to 20 February 1809), was an epic struggle that encouraged Spanish resistance to the French throughout the Peninsular War.

21 December

The battle of Sahagun was a British cavalry victory during Sir John Moore’s campaign in northern Spain in the winter of 1808.

The battle of Molins del Ray was the final battle during General St. Cyr’s campaign to raise the siege of Barcelona.

29 December

The battle of Benavente was a rear-guard action during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna.

30 December

The battle of Mansilla was a French victory over the rearguard of a Spanish army under General La Romana, fought during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna.

1809

3 January

The action at the defile of Cacabellos was a minor British victory during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna.

5 January

The skirmish at Constantino was a rear-guard action during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna in the winter of 1808-1809.

7 January

The fighting at Lugo was the closest that the British and French came to fighting a full scale battle during Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna over the winter of 1808-1809.

10 January

The straggler's battle at Betanzos was an incident late in Sir John Moore’s retreat to Corunna in the winter of 1808-1809.

13 January

The battle of Ucles was a major French victory close to Madrid early in 1809. It saw a French army under Marshal Victor destroy the vanguard of the Spanish Army of the Centre, under General Venegas, and ended any chance of a quick Spanish return to Madrid.

16 January

The battle of Corunna, 16 January, was the final fight during Sir John Moore’s retreat from Spain in the winter of 1808-1809. a

26 January

The combat of Alcañiz was a minor French victory over a Spanish force outside Saragossa during the second siege of Saragossa

17-18 February

The combat of Igualada saw the French defeat the left wing of an ambitious Spanish offensive aimed at recapturing Barcelona.

18 February

The combat of Mora was an inconclusive clash between a Spanish raiding party under the Duke of Albuquerque and a brigade of French dragoons under the command of General Digeon.

20 February

End of the second siege of Saragossa

25 February

The battle of Valls saw the French defeat the right wing of an ambitious Spanish offensive aimed at recapturing Barcelona.

10-11 March 1809

The combat of Chaves was an early French victory during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Portugal of March 1809.

17 March

The combat of Meza de Ibor was a French victory early in the Medellin campaign that forced the Spanish to abandon their positions on the River Tagus and retreat south towards the Guadiana.

20 March

The combat of Berrocal was a minor Spanish victory during the Medellin Campaign.

The battle of Braga (or of Lanhozo) was a French victory during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Portugal, won against a large force of Portuguese Ordenanza

20-25 March

The siege of Chaves saw the Portuguese recapture this border town only two weeks after it had fallen to the French.

21 March

The combat of Miajadas was the second of two minor Spanish victories during their retreat from the Tagus during the Medellin campaign.

25-26 March

Soult's Passage of the Ave saw him pass the last barrier between his army and Oporto, the first target on his invasion of Portugal.

26-27 March

The battle of Ciudad Real was an almost bloodless French victory over a Spanish army that had attempted to force the French out of La Mancha.

28 March

The battle of Medellin was the final battle during Marshal Victor’s invasion of Estremadura of March 1809 and was one of the most costly Spanish defeats of the Peninsular War.

29 March

The battle of Oporto was the final significant success during Marshal Soult’s invasion of Portugal.

7 April-2 May

The long defence of the bridge at Amarante was the first significant Portuguese success during Marshal Soult’s 1809 invasion of the country.

11 April

The combat of Ospedaletto (11 April 1809) was the first significant fighting during the War of the Fifth Coalition, and saw the Austrians under Archduke John push back part of the French Army of Italy during the early stages of their invasion of Italy

16 April

The battle of Sacile (16 April 1809) was the first major battle during the War of the Fifth Coalition, and was an Austrian victory that might have caused the French serious problems in Italy if events on the Danube had not forced the Austrians to pull their army back.

The engagement at Landshut of 16 April 1809 was one of the few Austrian successes during their invasion of Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (War of the Fifth Coalition)

17 April

The engagement on the Regen or of Reinhausen of 17 April 1809 was a minor skirmish found on the north bank of the Danube opposite Regensburg that saw part of the Austrian advance guard clash with elements of Marshal Davout's isolated 3rd Corps

19 April

The battle of Teugn-Hausen (19 April 1809) was the first large scale battle during the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (Fifth Coalition) and saw the main Austrian army under Archduke Charles fail to take a chance to trap Marshal Davout's isolated 3rd Corps

The combat of Arnhofen (19 April 1809) was a Bavarian victory over an Austrian brigade guarding the left flank of the main Austrian army during its invasion of Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809

The combat of Pfaffenhoffen (19 April 1809) was a minor clash between the left wing of the Austrian army invading Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 and elements of Marshal Oudinet's corps, advancing east on the right wing of the French army

20 April

The battle of Abensberg (20 April 1809) was the first stage in Napoleon's counter-attack against the Austrian army invading Bavaria at the start of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, and saw him split the main Austrian army in half, forcing it to retreat to separate directions

21 April

The battle of Landshut (21 April 1809) saw the French force their way across the River Isar, completing the defeat of the left wing of the Austrian army that began on the previous day at Abensberg

22 April

Battle of Eggmuhl, French victory over the Austrians

23 April

The battle of Ratisbon or Regensburg (23 April 1809) was the final major battle in the initial Bavarian phase of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 (Fifth Coalition), and saw the French push the Austrians out of their last foot hold on the southern bank of the Danube.

24 April

The battle of Neumarkt (24 April 1809) was a rare French defeat during the Bavarian stage of the Franco-Austrian war of 1809 and saw the retreating Austrian left wing defeat Marshal Bessières' smaller pursuing column.

29 April

The combat of Salzburg, 29 April 1809, saw a small force of Napoleon's Bavarian allies capture the Austrian city of Salzburg, although they failed to intercept an Austrian column retreating from Munich (Franco-Austrian War of 1809)

8 May

The battle of the Piave (8 May 1809) was a French victory that effectively forced the Austrians to retreat from Italy, making up for the earlier French defeat at Sacile

10 May

The combat of Albergaria Nova was the result of an unsuccessful British attempt to trap the advance guard of Marshal Soult’s army at Oporto at the start of Sir Arthur Wellesley’s campaign in Northern Portugal of 1809.

The combat of Peso de Regoa was a relatively minor Portuguese victory over a French column under General Loison that very nearly resulted in the capture of Marshal Soult’s entire army.

The siege of Vienna of 10-13 May 1809 saw the Austrian capital fall to Napoleon for the second time in four years after a very short attempt to defend the city.

11 May

The combat of Grijon of was the second action during Sir Arthur Wellesley’s campaign in northern Portugal of 1809 and saw the French advance guard south of Oporto fight a short rearguard action before retreating into the city.

12 May

The battle of Oporto was Arthur Wellesley’s first victory after his return to Portugal in April 1809 (Peninsular War)

13 May

End of Siege of Vienna

14 May

The combat of Alcantara of was a minor clash between part of Marshal Victor’s corps and a small Portuguese force that had been stationed just across the Spanish frontier to watch the French army in Estremadura.

15/16 May

The passage of the Ponte Nova of 15/16 May 1809 was one of the most daring exploits during Marshal Soult’s retreat from Oporto of May 1809.

16 May

The combat of Mt. Kita (16 May 1809) was the first of a series of French victories that broke the deadlock on the Dalmatian Front during the War of the Fifth Coalition

17 May

The combat of Salamonde was the only serious fighting during Marshal Soult’s retreat after his defeat at Oporto on 12 May.

The passage of the Misarella River saw Marshal Soult’s army get past the last major barrier between them and relative safety during their retreat from Oporto in May 1809.

The combat of Gracac (17 May 1809) was a battle between Austrian and French troops on the Dalmatia-Croatia border that ended in a draw, but that did not prevent the Austrians from having to withdraw further into Croatia

The battle of Linz (17 May 1809) was an unsuccessful Austrian attempt to threaten Napoleon's long lines of communication back from Vienna along the Danube, and to prevent French reinforcements from moving west to join Napoleon's main army

18 May

The combat of Tarvisio (18 May 1809) was minor victory during the French advance after their victory over an Austrian army led by Archduke John on the Piave River on 8 May.

21-22 May

The combat of Gospic (21-22 May 1809) was hard fought clash between the Austrians and French on the border between Croatia and Dalmatia that ended in a draw but that forced the Austrians to retreat to the north.

The battle of Aspern-Essling (21-22 May 1809) was the first serious battlefield defeat suffered by Napoleon, and saw the Austrians repel a hasty French attempt to cross the Danube close to Vienna.

22 May

The combat near Laybach of 22 May 1809 was an almost bloodless victory for the French that ended with the surrender of a large Austrian force near Laybach (modern Ljubljana)

23 May

The combat of Santiago was a relatively rare victory for a Spanish partisan force over regular French troops during the Peninsular War.

The battle of Alcañiz was only the second major Spanish battlefield victory of the Peninsular War, and demonstrated many of the problems that would dog the French for the entire war.

25 May

The battle of St. Michael (25 May 1809) was a disastrous Austrian defeat that saw an entire division destroyed, dramatically reducing their ability to defend against a French invasion from Italy

The combat of Zutalovka (25 May 1809) was a clash between a retreating Austrian army from Croatia and the pursuing French Army of Dalmatia

25 May-11 December

The third siege of Gerona was one of the great epics of Spanish resistance during the Peninsular War, which despite ending in a French victory would act as a rallying call for Spanish resistance for the rest of the war.

7-8 June

The combat of the Oitabén River was a victory for a largely partisan Spanish force over Marshal Ney, which played a large part in the final defeat of French efforts to conquer Galicia.

9 July

The combat of Laa (9 July 1809) was one of a number of minor clashes between the French and the retreating Austrians in the aftermath of the battle of Wagram, and helped the French identify the main Austrian line of retreat.

12 June

The combat of Papa (12 June 1809) was a rearguard action fought during Archduke John of Austria's retreat towards the Danube after the failure of his invasion of Italy

14 June

The battle of Raab (14 June 1809) was a victory won by the French Army of Italy over an Austrian army in Western Hungary, preventing that army from reinforcing the main Austrian army in the days before the battle of Wagram.

15 June

The battle of Maria was a French victory that ended a brief Spanish threat to Saragossa.

18 June

The rout of Belchite was a French victory that ended General Blake’s attempt to recapture Saragossa in the summer of 1809.

5-6 July

The battle of Wagram (5-6 July 1809) was the decisive (if not the final) battle of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809 and was a costly French victory that saw Napoleon command a larger army than at any previous battle.

9 July

The combat of Hollabrunn (9 July 1809) was a successful Austrian rearguard action during their retreat after defeat at Wagram (5-6 July 1809) and saw Klenau's VI Corps hold up the French troops sent to find the retreating Austrian army

The combat of Laa (9 July 1809) was one of a number of minor clashes between the French and the retreating Austrians in the aftermath of the battle of Wagram, and helped the French identify the main Austrian line of retreat.

10 July

The combat of Schöngrabern (10 July 1809) was a second successful Austrian rearguard action in two days in the aftermath of their defeat at Wagram, and saw a small force from Reuss's V Corps hold up Massena's troops advancing on the main road towards Znaim

The battle of Znaim (10-11 July 1809) was the last battle on the main front of the Franco-Austrian War of 1809, and was cut short after Napoleon agreed to Austrian offers of an armistice.

11 July

Second day of the Battle of Znaim

12 July

Armistice of Znaim, initial peace between France and Austria

26 July

The combat of Torrijos was a clash between the Spanish rearguard and advancing French cavalry, fought two days before the battle of Talavera.

27 July

The combat of Cassa de Salinas of was a preliminary action fought on the day before the main fighting at the battle of Talavera.

27-28 July

The battle of Talavera was the first of Sir Arthur Wellesley’s great victories in Spain during the Peninsular War.

5 August

The combat of Aranjuez was an inconclusive skirmish between the armies of King Joseph and General Venegas, fought towards the end of the Talavera campaign.

8 August

The combat of Arzobispo was a minor French victory late in the Talavera campaign, which saw them force their way across the River Tagus.

17 September

Treaty of Fredrikshavn, Finland transfered from Sweden to Russia

9 October

The combat of Astorga was a minor French setback in the autumn of 1809.

14 October

Treaty of Schonbrunn, peace forced on Austria by France in which Austria agreed to join the continental system

18 October

The battle of Tamames was the first Spanish battlefield victory in the Peninsular War since Alcaniz (23 May 1809), and the most significant since Baylen, right at the start of the war.

7 November

The combat of Hostalrich was a minor French victory in Catalonia, which played a significant part in their victory in the third siege of Gerona (24 May-11 December 1809).

11 November

The combat of Ocaña was a minor French victory early in the Spanish Junta’s autumn campaign of 1809.

19 November

The battle of Ocaña was a major Spanish defeat that ended any chance of success in the Spanish Junta’s autumn campaign of 1809.

23-24 November

The combat of Tremendal was a rare French success against one of the elusive bands of Spanish guerrillas.

28 November

The battle of Alba de Tormes was a dramatic French cavalry victory that ended the Spanish Junta’s autumn campaign of 1809.

11 December

Third siege of Gerona ends in a French victory

Timeline 1800-1809 - History

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First performance of Ludwig von Beethoven's 1st Symphony in C.

Painting by Francisco de Goya : The Nude Maja (Spanish: La Maja Desnuda) portrays a nude woman reclining on a bed of pillows, and was probably commissioned by Manuel de Godoy, to hang in his private collection in a separate cabinet reserved for nude paintings. Goya created a pendant of the same woman identically posed, but clothed, known today as La maja vestida (The Clothed Maja) also in the Prado, it is usually hung next to La maja desnuda. The subject is identified as a maja based on her costume in La maja vestida. The painting is renowned for the straightforward and unashamed gaze of the model towards the viewer. With this work Goya not only upset the ecclesiastical authorities, but also titillated the public and extended the artistic horizon of the day. It has been in the Museo del Prado in Madrid since 1901.

Thomas Wedgwood conceives of making permanent pictures of camera images by using a durable surface coated with a light-sensitive chemical. He succeeds only in producing silhouettes and other shadow images, and is unable to make them permanent.

(no entry for this year)

Thomas Jefferson becomes the third president of the United States.

Ireland and Great Britain, England and Scotland, form United Kingdom.

(no entry for this year)

The Ohio Constitution outlaws slavery. It also prohibits free blacks from voting.

Painting by Francisco de Goya : The Clothed Maja (Spanish: La maja vestida) is a clothed version of the earlier La maja desnuda (1797&ndash1800) and is exhibited next to it in the same room at the Prado Museum in Madrid. It was twice in the collection of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando, also in Madrid, being "sequestered" by the Spanish Inquisition between 1814 and 1836, and has been in the Museo del Prado since 1901.

U.S. President Thomas Jefferson appoints Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the uncharted West. Among the marvels Lewis and Clark are expected to find are erupting volcanoes, mountains of salt, unicorns, living mastodons and seven-foot-tall beavers. They will find none of these, but will find fossils.

US buys large tract of land from France &mdash The Louisiana Purchase.

(no entry for this year)

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin their exploration of the Louisiana territory.

(no entry for this year)

Britain's Lord Nelson defeats the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. Lord Nelson is killed, but his victory ends Napoleons power at sea and makes a French invasion of Britain impossible.

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

(no entry for this year)

The Slave Trade Act 1807 or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the title of "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade". The original act is in the Parliamentary Archives. The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, in particular the Atlantic slave trade, and also encouraged British action to press other European states to abolish their slave trades, but it did not abolish slavery itself.

Robert Fulton develops the first practical steamboat, the Clermont, which sails from New York City to Albany and back.

(no entry for this year)

United States Bans Slave Trade Importing African slaves is outlawed, but smuggling continues.

The US prohibits the importation of new slaves from Africa (but the holding of existing slaves and their descendents remains legal).

(no entry for this year)

12 Feb 1809

James Madison becomes the fourth president of the United States.

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB &mdash the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers &mdash such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map &mdash ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.


1800 to 1809

While in Philadelphia, Jefferson learns that his lifelong body servant and slave, Jupiter, has died. Jupiter had fallen ill but insisted on accompanying Jefferson in his travels. Unable to continue, and left in Fredericksburg, Virginia to recuperate, Jupiter had returned home to Monticello, where he died.

Thomas Jefferson, 1800, by Rembrandt Peale (1778-1860), White House Collection, courtesy White House Historical Association

June 1800

The U. S. capital is moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D.C.

June 30, 1800

A false report that Jefferson is dead is published in Baltimore and taken up elsewhere throughout the country.

July 1800

Jefferson works on a manual of parliamentary practice, which will be published in 1801 and become the procedural handbook for the Senate. About twelve years after Jefferson's death in 1826, the House adapts the Manual of Parliamentary Practice for its own use. The 1993 edition, still in use today in the Senate, includes Jefferson's preface and a list of the sources he used in writing it.

December 3, 1800

Electors meet in their states and cast votes for the next president of the United States. A tie vote between Jefferson andAaron Burr does not become known till the end of the month. This throws the election into the House of Representatives which addresses the matter on February 11, 1801.

February 11, 1801

The electors' votes for president are officially opened and counted in Congress, which already knows that the vote is tied between Jefferson and Aaron Burr. The House of Representatives meets separately and continues balloting for six days. On February 17, on the thirty-sixth ballot, Jefferson is elected president and Aaron Burr becomes vice president.

March 2, 1801

President John Adams appoints sixteen federal judges in a series of "midnight appointments" after the Judiciary Act, which establishes courts between the Supreme and the federal levels, becomes effective February 13. Republicans see this action as a Federalist attempt to gain control of the federal court system in the last hours of Adams administration. Adams also appoints John Marshall, an avowed Federalist, Chief Justice of the United States. Jefferson and Adams cease correspondence thereafter and do not resume it until 1812. The Judiciary Act is repealed on March 8, 1801.

March 4, 1801

Jefferson is the first president inaugurated in the new capital city. He walks to his inauguration from his residence, Conrad and McCunn's boarding house, a very short distance from the Capitol Building. "We are all republicans, we are all federalists," Jefferson says in his Inaugural Address. In Jefferson's handwritten copy, "republicans" and "federalists" are both lowercased. In the National Intelligencer, where the Address is published the same day, the terms are capitalized as would be appropriate for two political parties. In the weeks that follow, Jefferson sends copies of his Inaugural Address to two of the original signers of the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Rush and Samuel Adams, and to John Dickinson and Nathaniel Niles.

May 1801

The Pasha of Tripoli declares war on the United States because it has been paying Tripoli less in tribute than it pays Algiers. Tripoli is one of several North African regimes collecting tribute from commercial shipping in the Mediterranean. On May 20, Jefferson sends a naval squadron to the area. In 1804, Stephen Decatur rescues American seamen held in the Bay of Tripoli on their captured ship, the Philadelphia. The naval war ends shortly thereafter.

June 2, 1801

Jefferson pays Martha Washington a visit of condolence at Mount Vernon.

January 1, 1802

Jefferson replies to a letter from Connecticut's Danbury Baptist Association. In his reply Jefferson explains his position on the issue of the government establishment of religion. Letter, 1802. | Letter, digitally revised to expose obliterated sections. (Thomas Jefferson to Nehemiah Dodge, Ephraim Robbins and Stephen S. Nelson, a committee of the Danbury Baptist Association in the state of Connecticut, January 1, 1802. Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, Thomas Jefferson Papers. Presented in the Religion and the Founding of the American Republic. Part VI: Religion and the Federal Government, Part 2, Library of Congress Exhibitions.)

September 1802

James Callender makes the accusation that Thomas Jefferson has "for many years past kept, as his concubine, one of his own slaves," Sally Hemings. It is published in the Richmond Recorder that month, and the story is soon picked up by Federalist presses around the country. Callender, a Republican, has previously been an avid investigator of Federalist scandals. In 1798, Jefferson had helped pay for the publication of Callender's pamphlet The Prospect Before Us, which claimed to expose John Adams as a monarchist. However, when Jefferson, now president, fails to reward Callender with the office of postmaster in Richmond, Virginia, Callender turns on him.

January 18, 1803

Jefferson asks Congress for funds for an expedition to explore the Mississippi River and beyond in search of a route to the Pacific. Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson's private secretary, begins planning the expedition, which forms late in 1803.

April 30, 1803

Robert Livingston, ambassador to France, and James Monroe, special envoy, conclude a treaty of cession in Paris in which the United States purchases from France the whole of the Louisiana territory for fifteen million dollars. The territory, approximately 800,000 square miles comprising the Mississippi River Valley and most of the present-day Midwest, almost doubles the size of the United States. Jefferson's original expectation was that Livingston and Monroe might persuade the French to yield a portion of the Mississippi River Valley for ten million dollars. However, Emperor Napoleon of France has just lost an army and the island of Santo Domingo in the Caribbean to Toussaint L'Overture, leader of a slave insurrection, and he is no longer interested in maintaining a French foothold in North America. He offers the United States the whole of the territory.

July 4, 1803

News of the purchase of the Louisiana territory is announced in the United States. Jefferson drafts an amendment that if ratified would make the purchase of the Louisiana territory constitutional retroactively. The draft contains measures for the removal of Indian tribes to the other side of the Mississippi River and prohibits American settlement above the 33rd Parallel. Draft of Constitutional Amendment Incorporating Louisiana Territory into the United States

October 1803

A special session of Congress dispenses with Jefferson's draft amendment and ratifies the purchase of the Louisiana territory. Congress also passes legislation giving Jefferson authority over the provisional governments established there.

April 17, 1804

Jefferson's daughter Mary (Polly) Jefferson Eppes dies from complications in childbirth. She is twenty-five years old. Abigail Adams, learning of Jefferson's loss, writes him a letter of condolence. June 13, Jefferson responds to her letter and a correspondence follows. However, it soon ceases when political differences on old issues resurface: Jefferson's support of James Callender's pamphlet criticizing Adams in 1798 and John Adams's appointment of "midnight judges" during the last weeks of his presidency in 1801.

May 1804

The expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark departs, moving up the Missouri River. (Lewis and Clark map, with annotations. Geography and Map Division)

July 12, 1804

Alexander Hamilton dies after being shot the previous day by Vice President Aaron Burr in a duel at Weehawken, New Jersey.

November 1804

Jefferson is re-elected president. He receives the votes of all state electors except those of Connecticut, Delaware, and two from Maryland. George Clinton is his vice president.

Jefferson begins planning an expedition up the Red River to Spanish territory in the southwest.

March 4, 1805

Jefferson is inaugurated as president for a second term.

Th. Jefferson, photomechanical print, created/published [between 1890 and 1940(?)]. This print is a reproduction of the 1805 Rembrandt Peale painting of Thomas Jefferson held by the New-York Historical Society.

April 7, 1805

Lewis and Clark depart from Fort Mandan in what is now North Dakota for the Pacific. They report to Jefferson on the findings of the first year of their expedition.

June 4 1805

The U. S. and Tripoli sign a peace treaty, ending the Mediterranean naval war between the two countries.

August-October 1805

Zebulon Pike begins an expedition to the headwaters of the Mississippi River. Thomas Freeman accepts Jefferson's invitation to head the Red River expedition.

February-March 1806

Joseph H. Daveiss, a Kentucky Federalist, writes Jefferson several letters warning him of possible conspiratorial activities by Aaron Burr. Daveiss's July 14 letter to Jefferson states flatly that Burr plans to provoke a rebellion in Spanish-held parts of the West in order to join them to areas in the Southwest to form an independent nation under his rule. Similar accusations are appearing against local Republicans in a Frankfort, Kentucky newspaper, Western World, and Jefferson dismisses Daveiss's accusations against Burr, a Republican, as politically motivated.

April 19, 1806

Jefferson nominates James Monroe and William Pinckney as joint commissioners to Great Britain. British warships have been boarding and searching American ships and seizing American as well as British seamen, claiming that they are British deserters. Jefferson hopes to resolve the issue and maintain American neutrality in the conflict between Great Britain and France.

July 1806

Zebulon Pike's expedition, which began in the fall of 1805, is at the Arkansas River.

September 23, 1806

Meriwether Lewis writes Jefferson about the expedition's return to St. Louis.

September- October 1806

Jefferson receives further information from a variety of sources in Pennsylvania and New York, including Generals William Eaton and James Wilkinson, that Aaron Burr is organizing a military expedition against Spanish possessions for the purpose of separating western territories from the United States. Eaton, a veteran of the recent Tripolitan War, claims that Burr tried to recruit him. Wilkinson, commander of United States military forces in the West, provides information about the conspiracy after having been implicated in it himself. He does not specifically name Burr.

November 27, 1806

Jefferson issues a proclamation declaring that "sundry persons, citizens of the U.S. or resident within the same, are conspiring & confederating. against the dominions of Spain" and requiring that all military and civil officials of all states and territories of the United States prevent "the carrying on such expedition or enterprise by all lawful means within their power."

January 17, 1807

Aaron Burr is captured near New Orleans. He escapes but is recaptured and imprisoned. In April, Burr is charged with treason and tried in Richmond in a federal circuit court presided over by John Marshall. Burr is acquitted. Later, with other charges pending, Burr escapes to England.

March 1807

The Monroe-Pinckney Treaty between Great Britain and the United States, negotiated a year earlier, is made public in Washington. It does not include any guarantees against impressment, although the British have offered informal assurances. Jefferson finds the Treaty unacceptable and the Senate refuses to ratify it. Secretary of State James Madison suggests defusing the situation by forbidding British seamen to serve on American trading ships.

June 22, 1807

The British warship Leopard attacks the American ship Chesapeake off the Virginia coast because its captain refused to allow the British to board and search for deserters. Three American seamen are killed and eighteen wounded as the British force a boarding and remove four alleged deserters. After learning of the attack on June 25, Jefferson calls an emergency cabinet meeting.

July 1807

Jefferson and his cabinet release a proclamation closing American ports to all British ships except those with emergencies or on diplomatic missions. The Revenge will carry an ultimatum to Great Britain. Meanwhile, state governors are to call up troops for the federal army.

October- December 1807

James Monroe's further negotiations with Great Britain on the boarding and searching of American ships and other issues fail. In December, as the war between Great Britain and France escalates, Jefferson learns that Napoleon will extend his blockade to American shipping and authorize French seizure of American ships.

December 14, 1807

The Nonimportation Act becomes effective, and on December 18, the Senate passes the Embargo Act. The Nonimportation Act was drafted in 1806, but Congress has awaited the outcome of negotiations before making it effective. The Embargo Act closes all American ports to foreign trade, allowing only coastal trade. In 1808, further measures tighten the Embargo Act and prohibit exports by land. Opposition to the Embargo Act is especially strong among New England Federalist merchants. Jefferson also receives many letters of protest from ordinary citizens. Anonymous to Thomas Jefferson, February 2, 1808, Signed A True Republican

April 19, 1808

Jefferson declares the Lake Champlain region to be in a state of insurrection because of its outright violations of the Embargo Act.

November 8, 1808

In his Annual Message to Congress, Jefferson calls for an increase in domestic manufactures. He cites the beneficial expansion of manufacturing since the Embargo Act has been in effect.

December 7, 1808

James Madison is elected president.

March 1, 1809

Jefferson signs the Non-Intercourse Act, which effectively repeals the Embargo Act of 1807 but continues restrictions on trade with Great Britain.

March 4 1809

Jefferson retires from public office, and James Madison is inaugurated president. Jefferson leaves Washington and returns to his home, Monticello, in Virginia. He never leaves Virginia again.


American History Timeline: 1820-1829

  • American History
    • Key Events
    • Basics
    • Important Historical Figures
    • U.S. Presidents
    • Native American History
    • American Revolution
    • America Moves Westward
    • The Gilded Age
    • Crimes & Disasters
    • The Most Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution

    The decade of the 1820s in American history brought technological advances in transportation such as the Erie Canal and the Santa Fe Trail, early computing and hurricane studies, and a distinct souring of the way people in the United States saw their government.

    January 29: George IV became the King of England upon the death of George III the widely unpopular king had been regent to his father since 1811 and died in 1830.

    March: The Missouri Compromise became law in the United States. The landmark legislation effectively avoided dealing with the issue of enslavement for the next few decades.

    March 22: American naval hero Stephen Decatur was fatally wounded in a duel fought near Washington, D.C. with a former friend, the disgraced Navy Commodore James Barron.

    September 26: American frontiersman Daniel Boone died in Missouri at the age of 85. He had pioneered the Wilderness Road, which led many settlers westward to Kentucky.

    November: James Monroe faced virtually no opposition and was reelected the 5th president of the United States.

    February 22: The Adams-Onis Treaty between the U.S. and Spain went into effect. This treaty established the southern border of the Louisiana Purchase, including the cession of Florida to the U.S., making the peninsula no longer a safe haven for freedom seekers.

    March 4: James Monroe was sworn in for his second term as president of the United States.

    May 5: Napoleon Bonaparte died in exile on the island of St. Helena.

    September 3: A devastating hurricane struck New York City, and the study of its path would lead to the understanding of rotating storms.

    A children's book published in New York City referred to a character named "Santeclaus," which may have been the first printed reference to Santa Claus in the English language.

    The Santa Fe Trail opened as a two-way international commercial highway connecting Franklin, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico.

    May 30: Arrests in Charleston, South Carolina, prevented a sophisticated and complex uprising by enslaved people, which had been planned by Denmark Vesey, a formerly enslaved person. Vesey and 34 conspirators were tried and executed, and the church where he was leader and congregate was burned to the ground.

    In England, Charles Babbage designed the “difference engine,” an early computing machine. He was unable to complete a prototype, but it was just the first of his experiments in computing.

    Inscriptions on the Rosetta Stone, a block of basalt discovered in Egypt by Napoleon, were deciphered, and the stone became a critical key to enabling reading the ancient Egyptian language to the modern era.

    The first group of formerly enslaved people being resettled in Africa by the American Colonization Society arrived in Liberia and founded the town of Monrovia, named for President James Monroe.

    December 23: The poem "A Visit From St. Nicholas" by Clement Clarke Moore was published in a newspaper in Troy, New York.

    December: President James Monroe introduced the Monroe Doctrine as part of his annual message to Congress. It opposed further European colonization in the Americas, and promised to not interfere with the internal affairs of European countries or their existing colonies, what would become a long-standing tenet of U.S. foreign policy.

    March 2: The landmark Supreme Court decision Gibbons v. Ogden ended a monopoly of steamboats in the waters around New York City. The case opened up the steamboat business to competition, which made great fortunes possible for entrepreneurs such as Cornelius Vanderbilt. But the case also established principles regarding interstate commerce which apply to the present day.

    August 14: The Marquis de Lafayette, French hero of the American Revolution, returned to America for a grand tour. He had been invited by the federal government, which wanted to show off all the progress the nation had made in the 50 years since its founding. Over the course of a year Lafayette visited all 24 states as an honored guest.

    November: The U.S. presidential election of 1824 was deadlocked with no clear winner, and the political machinations of the controversial election ended the period of American politics known as The Era of Good Feelings.

    February 9: The election of 1824 was settled by a vote in the U.S. House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams as president. Supporters of Andrew Jackson claimed a "Corrupt Bargain" had been struck between Adams and Henry Clay.

    March 4: John Quincy Adams was inaugurated as president of the United States.

    October 26: The entire length of the Erie Canal was officially opened across New York, from Albany to Buffalo. The engineering feat had been the brainchild of DeWitt Clinton and, although the canal project was overwhelmingly successful in facilitating the movement of goods, that success encouraged the development of its competitor: the railroad.

    January 30: In Wales, the 1,300 foot Menai Suspension Bridge over the Menai Strait opened. Still in use today, the structure ushered in an age of great bridges.

    July 4: John Adams died in Massachusetts and Thomas Jefferson died in Virginia, on the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Their deaths left Charles Carroll of Carrollton as the last surviving singer of the nation's founding document.

    Josiah Holbrook founded the American Lyceum Movement in Massachusetts, a bulwark of continuing education supporting lectures for adults, and the betterment of local libraries and schools.

    March 26: Composer Ludwig van Beethoven died in Vienna, Austria, at the age of 56.

    August 12: English poet and artist William Blake died in London, England at the age of 69.

    Artist John James Audubon published the first volume of Birds of America, which would eventually contain 435 life-size water colors of North American birds and become the archetype of wildlife illustration.

    Summer–Fall: The election of 1828 was preceded by perhaps the dirtiest campaign ever, with supporters of Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams hurling shocking accusations—such as murder and prostitution—at one another.

    November: Andrew Jackson was elected president of the United States.

    Cornelius Vanderbilt began operating his own fleet of steamboats in New York Harbor.

    Religious freedom increased in Ireland, thanks to the Catholic Emancipation movement of Daniel O’Connell.

    September 29: The Metropolitan Police Service was founded in London, England, with its headquarters at Scotland Yard, superseding the old system of night watchmen. Albeit flawed, The Met would become a model for police systems the world round.


    Timeline 1800-1809 - History

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    The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993. More About : ESP | OUR CONTENT | THIS WEBSITE | WHAT'S NEW | WHAT'S HOT

    The ESP Timeline (one of the site's most popular features) has been completely updated to allow the user to select (using the timeline controls above each column) different topics for the left and right sides of the display.

    Genetics, Development, and Evolution

    (no entry for this year)

    Thomas Wedgwood conceives of making permanent pictures of camera images by using a durable surface coated with a light-sensitive chemical. He succeeds only in producing silhouettes and other shadow images, and is unable to make them permanent.

    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Système de Animaux sans Vertèbres (System for Animals without Vertebrae) includes a classification system for invertebrates and a preliminary view of his ideas of evolution.

    Thomas Jefferson becomes the third president of the United States.

    Ireland and Great Britain, England and Scotland, form United Kingdom.

    In Natural Theology, William Paley uses the analogy of a watch requiring a watchmaker to argue that the universe implies an intelligent designer.

    The Ohio Constitution outlaws slavery. It also prohibits free blacks from voting.

    (no entry for this year)

    U.S. President Thomas Jefferson appoints Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the uncharted West. Among the marvels Lewis and Clark are expected to find are erupting volcanoes, mountains of salt, unicorns, living mastodons and seven-foot-tall beavers. They will find none of these, but will find fossils.

    US buys large tract of land from France &mdash The Louisiana Purchase.

    (no entry for this year)

    Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin their exploration of the Louisiana territory.

    (no entry for this year)

    Britain's Lord Nelson defeats the Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar. Lord Nelson is killed, but his victory ends Napoleons power at sea and makes a French invasion of Britain impossible.

    (no entry for this year)

    (no entry for this year)

    (no entry for this year)

    The Slave Trade Act 1807 or the Abolition of the Slave Trade Act 1807, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed on 25 March 1807, with the title of "An Act for the Abolition of the Slave Trade". The original act is in the Parliamentary Archives. The act abolished the slave trade in the British Empire, in particular the Atlantic slave trade, and also encouraged British action to press other European states to abolish their slave trades, but it did not abolish slavery itself.

    Robert Fulton develops the first practical steamboat, the Clermont, which sails from New York City to Albany and back.

    (no entry for this year)

    United States Bans Slave Trade Importing African slaves is outlawed, but smuggling continues.

    The US prohibits the importation of new slaves from Africa (but the holding of existing slaves and their descendents remains legal).

    12 Feb 1809

    Jean Baptiste de Lamarck's theory of evolution presented with the publication of his Philosophie Zoologique, which emphasized the fundamental unity of life and the capacity of species to vary.

    12 Feb 1809

    James Madison becomes the fourth president of the United States.

    In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB &mdash the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

    In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

    Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

    In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

    Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

    When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers &mdash such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map &mdash ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

    Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.


    Wisconsin History Timeline

    Offers a chronological timeline of important dates, events, and milestones in Wisconsin history.

    The people living in Wisconsin belong to a broad group of Native Americans, mainly tribes who speak Algonquian and Sioux. They include the Menominee, Kickapoo, Miami, Winnebago, Dakota, and Iowa. Later in the century, other groups enter Wisconsin, including the Fox, Sac, Potawatomi, and Chippewa.

    Wisconsin became a US territory following the American Revolution and soon after began attracting settlers looking for work in its mining, lumber and dairy industries. It was admitted to the union as the 30th state in 1848.

    17th Century Wisconsin History Timeline

    1634 - Jean Nicolet: First known European to reach Wisconsin. Sought Northwest Passage.

    1654-59 - Pierre Esprit Radisson and Medart Chouart des Groseilliers: First of the fur traders in Wisconsin.

    1661 - Father Rene Menard: First missionary to Wisconsin Indians.

    1665 - Father Claude Allouez founded mission at La Pointe.

    1666 - Nicholas Perrot opened fur trade with Wisconsin Indians.

    1672 - Father Allouez and Father Louis Andre built St. Francois Xavier mission at De Pere.

    1673 - Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette discovered Mississippi River.

    1678 - Daniel Greysolon Sieur du Lhut (Duluth) explored western end of Lake Superior.

    1685 - Perrot made Commandant of the West.

    1690-1820 - Roman Catholic missionaries established the mission of St. Ignace de Michilimackinac, at Mackinac (now Michigan). The mission was the center for traders going to and from what is now Wisconsin.

    18th Century Wisconsin History Timeline

    1701-38 - Fox Indian Wars.

    1755 - Wisconsin Indians, under Charles Langlade, helped defeat British General Braddock.

    1763 - Treaty of Paris. Wisconsin became part of British colonial territory.

    1761 - Fort at Green Bay accepted by English.

    1764 - Charles Langlade settled at Green Bay. First permanent settlement.

    1766 - Jonathan Carver visited Wisconsin seeking Northwest Passage.

    1774 - Quebec Act makes Wisconsin a part of Province of Quebec.

    1781 - Traditional date of settlement at Prairie du Chien.

    1783 - Following the Treaty of Paris, the United States takes ownership of the Wisconsin Region.

    • Wisconsin officially became part of the US Northwest Territory, but British fur traders effectively controlled the region until 1816.
    • Under Ordinance of 1787, Wisconsin was made part of the Northwest Territory. The governing units for the Wisconsin area prior to statehood were:
      • 1787-1800 - Northwest Territory.
      • 1800-1809 - Indiana Territory.
      • 1809-1818 - Illinois Territory.
      • 1818-1836 - Michigan Territory.
      • 1836-1848 - Wisconsin Territory.

      1795 - Jacques Vieau established trading posts at Kewaunee, Manitowoc and Sheboygan. Made headquarters at Milwaukee.

      19th Century Wisconsin History Timeline

      • William Henry Harrison's treaty with Indians at St. Louis.
      • United States extinguished Indian title to lead region (a cause of Black Hawk War).

      1814 - Fort Shelby built at Prairie du Chien. Captured by English and name changed to Fort McKay.

      1815 - War with England concluded. Fort McKay abandoned by British.

      • The establishment of Fort Howard at Green Bay and Fort Shelby rebuilt at Prairie du Chien (renamed Fort Crawford) at Prairie du Chien opens the region to settlement.
      • Astor's American Fur Company began operations in Wisconsin.
      • Solomon Juneau bought trading post of Jacques Vieau at Milwaukee.
      • The Wisconsin area was included in the Michigan Territory.
      • The territorial governor of Michigan created the first two Wisconsin counties, Brown and Crawford.

      1820s - High prices for lead attracted settlers to the mines of southern Wisconsin. The Michigan 1820 census lists residents of what is now Wisconsin.

      • Rev. Jedediah Morse preached first Protestant sermon in Wisconsin at Fort Howard (Green Bay)
      • July 9. Henry Schoolcraft, James Duane Doty, Lewis Cass made exploration trip through Wisconsin.
      • New York Indians (Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee and Brothertown) moved to Wisconsin.
      • First mining leases in southwest Wisconsin.

      1825 - Indian Treaty established tribal boundaries.

      1826-27 - Winnebago Indian War. Surrender of Chief Red Bird.

      1828 - Fort Winnebago begun at Portage.

      • Heavy settlement began along the Lake Michigan shoreline at the sites of present-day Milwaukee, Racine, and Kenosha.
      • The Michigan Territory 1830 Federal Census lists residents of what is now Wisconsin.

      1832 - Black Hawk War.

      1833 - Land treaty with Indians cleared southern Wisconsin land titles. First newspaper, Green Bay Intelligencer, established.

      1835 - First steamboat arrived at Milwaukee. First bank in Wisconsin opened at Green Bay.

      • Discovery of lead results in the creation of the Territory of Wisconsin, which included lands west of the Mississippi River to the Missouri River. Much of the western portion was later transferred to the Iowa Territory, created in 1838. Act creating Territory of Wisconsin signed April 20 by President Andrew Jackson. (Provisions of Ordinance of 1787 made part of the act.)
      • Capital located at Belmont
      • Henry Dodge appointed governor, July 4, by President Andrew Jackson.
      • First session of legislature.
      • Madison chosen as permanent capital.
      • Madison surveyed and platted.
      • First Capitol begun.
      • Panic of 1837 - all territorial banks failed.
      • Winnebago Indians ceded all claims to land in Wisconsin.
      • Imprisonment for debt abolished.
      • Territorial legislature met in Madison.
      • Milwaukee and Rock River Canal Company chartered.
      • First school taxes authorized and levied.
      • Many foreigners arrived from Germany and New York.

      1841 - James D. Doty appointed governor by President John Tyler.

      1842 - C.C. Arndt shot and killed in legislature by James R. Vineyard.

      • Nathaniel P. Tallmadge appointed governor.
      • Wisconsin Phalanx (a utopian colony) established at Ceresco (Ripon).
      • Dodge reappointed governor.
      • Mormon settlement at Voree (Burlington).
      • Swiss colony came to New Glarus.
      • Congress passed enabling act for admission of Wisconsin as state.
      • First Constitutional Convention met in Madison.

      1847 - Census population 210,546. First Constitution rejected by people. Second Constitutional Convention.

      • Wisconsin becomes the nation's 30th state.
      • Legislature met June 5. Governor Nelson Dewey inaugurated June 7.
      • State university incorporated.
      • First telegramreached Milwaukee.
      • Large scale German immigration began.
      • School code adopted.
      • First free, taxsupported, graded school with high school at Kenosha.
      • Bond Law for controlling sale of liquor passed.
      • State opened the Wisconsin Institute for Education of the Blind at Janesville.
      • Impeachment of Judge Levi Hubbell.
      • Capital punishment abolished (third state to take action).
      • Republican Party named at a meeting in Ripon.
      • First class graduated at state university.
      • Joshua Glover, fugitive slave, arrested in Racine, and the Wisconsin Supreme Court, in related matter, declared Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 unconstitutional.
      • Milwaukee and Mississippi Railroad reached Madison.
      • Bashford-Barstow election scandal.
      • Legislative report on maladministration of school funds.
      • Railroad completed to Prairie du Chien.
      • First high school class graduated at Racine.
      • Industrial School for Boys opened at Waukesha.

      1858 - Legislative investigation of bribery in 1856 Legislature.

      1859 - Abraham Lincoln spoke at state fair in Milwaukee.

      1861 - Beginning of Civil War. Governor called for volunteers for military service. Bank riot in Milwaukee. Office of county superintendent of schools created.

      1861-1865 - Over 90,000 men from Wisconsin served in the Union armed forces during the Civil War.

      • Governor Louis P. Harvey drowned. Draft riots.
      • Edward G. Ryan's address at Democratic Convention criticized Lincoln's conduct of war.

      1864 - Cheese factory started at Ladoga, Fond du Lac County, by Chester Hazen.

      1865 - 96,000 Wisconsin soldiers served in Civil War losses were 12,216.

      • First state normal school opened at Platteville.
      • Agricultural College at university reorganized under Morrill Act.

      1871 - Peshtigo fire burned over much of 6 counties in northeast Wisconsin, resulting in over 1,000 deaths.

      1872 - Wisconsin Dairymen's Association organized at Watertown.

      • Invention of typewriter by C. Latham Sholes.
      • The Patrons of Husbandry, an agricultural organization nicknamed the Grangers, elected Governor William R. Taylor.

      1874 - Potter Law limiting railroad rates passed.

      • Free high school law passed women eligible for election to school boards.
      • State Industrial School for Girls established at Milwaukee. Republicans defeated Grangers.
      • Oshkosh almost destroyed by fire.

      1876 - Potter Law repealed. Hazel Green cyclone.

      1877 - John T. Appleby patented knotter for twine binders.

      • Constitution amended to make legislative sessions biennial.
      • First hydroelectric plant established at Appleton.

      1883 - Major hotel fire at the Newhall House in Milwaukee killed 71. South wing of Capitol extension collapsed 7 killed. Agricultural Experiment Station established at university.

      1885 - Gogebic iron range discoveries made Ashland a major shipping port.

      • Strikes related to the 8-hour work day movement at Milwaukee culminate in confrontation with militia at Bay View 5 killed.
      • Agricultural Short Course established at university.

      1887 - Marshfield almost destroyed by fire.

      • Bennett Law, requiring classroom instruction in English, passed.
      • Wisconsin Supreme Court in the "Edgerton Bible case", prohibited reading and prayers from the King James Bible in public schools.

      1890 - Stephen M. Babcock invents quick, easy, accurate test for milk butterfat content.

      1891 - Bennett Law repealed after bitter opposition from German Protestants and Catholics.

      1893 - Wisconsin Supreme Court ordered state treasurer to refund to the state interest on state deposits, which had customarily been retained by treasurers.

      1894 - Forest fires in northern and central Wisconsin.

      1897 - Corrupt practice act passed.

      1898 - Wisconsin sent 5,469 men to fight in Spanish-American War losses were 134.

      • Antipass law prohibited railroads from giving public officials free rides.
      • Tax commission created.
      • New Richmond tornado.

      20th Century Wisconsin History Timeline

      1900 - Wisconsin's first state park, Interstate near St. Croix Falls, established.

      • First Wisconsin-born Governor, Robert M. La Follette, inaugurated.
      • Teaching of agriculture introduced into rural schools.
      • Legislative Reference Library, which served as a model for other states and the Library of Congress, established - later renamed the Legislative Reference Bureau.
      • State civil service established auto license law passed tuberculosis sanitoria authorized.
      • Forestry Board created. Railroad Commission, regulating railroads and subsequently utilities, created.

      1907 - Current Capitol begun.

      1908 - Income tax amendment adopted.

      • Milwaukee elected Emil Seidel first Socialist mayor.
      • Eau Claire first Wisconsin city to adopt commission form of government.

      1911 - First income tax law teachers' pension act vocational schools authorized Industrial and Highway Commissions created workmen's compensation act enacted.

      1913 - Direct election of Wisconsin's US senators approved.

      1915 - Conservation Commission, State Board of Agriculture, and State Board of Education created.

      • Capitol completed, cost $7,258,763.
      • 120,000 Wisconsin soldiers served in World War I losses were 3,932.
      • Wisconsin first state to meet draft requirements 584,559 registrations.

      1919 - Eighteenth Amendment (Prohibition) ratified.

      1920 - Nineteenth Amendment (women's suffrage) ratified first state to deliver ratification to Washington.

      1921 - Equal rights for women and prohibition laws enacted.

      1923 - Military training made optional at university.

      • La Follette won Wisconsin's vote for president as Progressive Party candidate.
      • Reforestation amendment to state constitution adopted.

      1925 - Senator La Follette died on June 18.

      1929 - Professor Harry Steenbock of University of Wisconsin patented radiation of Vitamin D. Legislature repealed all Wisconsin laws for state enforcement of Prohibition.

      • Forest Products Laboratory erected at Madison.
      • Wisconsin becomes the first state to pass an unemployment compensation act.

      1933 - Dairy farmers undertook milk strike to protest low prices. Wisconsin voted for repeal of 18th Amendment (Prohibition) to US Constitution.

      1934 - Wisconsin Progressive Party formed.

      1942 - Governor-elect Loomis died Supreme Court decided Lieutenant Governor Goodland to serve as acting governor.

      1941-45 - Wisconsin enrolled 375,000 for World War II casualties 7,980.

      1946 - Wisconsin Progressive Party dissolved and rejoined Republican Party.

      1948 - Centennial Year.

      1949 - Legislature enacted new formula for distribution of state educational aids and classified school districts for this purpose.

      1950 - Wisconsin enrolled 132,000 for the Korean Conflict 800 casualties.

      1951 - First major legislative reapportionment since 1892.

      1957 - Legislation prohibited lobbyists from giving anything of value to a state employe.

      1958 - Professor Joshua Lederberg, UW geneticist, Nobel prize winner in medicine.

      1959 - Gaylord Nelson, first Democratic governor since 1933, inaugurated. Circus World Museum established at Baraboo. Frank Lloyd Wright, architect, died.

      1960 - Mrs. Dena Smith elected state treasurer, first woman elected to statewide office in Wisconsin.

      1961 - Legislation enacted to initiate longrange program of acquisition and improvement of state recreation facilities (ORAP program). Federal supervision of Menominee Indian tribe terminated on April 29 reservation became 72nd county.

      • Selective sales tax and income tax withholding enacted.
      • Kohler Company strike which began in 1954, settled.
      • John Gronouski, state tax commissioner, appointed US Postmaster General.
      • State expenditures from all funds for 1963-64 fiscal year top $1 billion for first time.
      • Wisconsin Supreme Court redistricted legislature after legislature and governor failed to agree on a plan.
      • Two National Farmers Organization members killed in demonstration at Bonduel stockyard.
      • Legislature enacted property tax relief for aged.
      • The office of county superintendent of schools abolished, but Cooperative Educational Service Agen-cies (CESAs) created to provide regional services.
      • School compulsory attendance age raised to 18.
      • All parts of state placed into vocational school districts. County boards reapportioned on population basis.
      • State law prevented discrimination in housing.
      • The State Capitol, in use since 1917, officially dedicated, after extensive remodeling and cleaning.
      • Legislature held first full evenyear regular session since 1882.
      • Governor Warren P. Knowles called out National Guard to keep order during civil rights demonstrations in Wauwatosa.
      • Wisconsin Supreme Court upheld Milwaukee Braves baseball team move to Atlanta. Grand jury investigation of illegal lobbying activities in the legislature resulted in 13 indictments.
      • Executive branch reorganized along functional lines.
      • Ban on colored oleomargarine repealed. Racial rioting in Milwaukee in July-August.
      • Marathon marches demonstrate for Milwaukee open housing ordinance.
      • Antiwar protests at the University of Wisconsin in Madison culminate in riot with injuries.
      • Constitutional amendment permitted the legislature to meet as provided by law rather than once a biennium, resulting in annual sessions.
      • Ninety Black students expelled from Wisconsin State University- Oshkosh when December demonstration damaged the administration building.
      • Wisconsin's first heart transplant performed at St. Luke's Hospital in Milwaukee first successful bone marrow transplant performed by team of scientists and surgeons at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.
      • Selective sales tax became general sales tax.
      • On opening day of special legislative session on welfare and urban aids, welfare mothers and UW-Madison students, led by Father James Groppi, took over the Assembly Chamber National Guard called to protect Capitol. Groppi cited for contempt and jailed contempt charge upheld by Wisconsin Supreme Court.
      • Student strikes at UW in Madison demanded Black studies department National Guard activated to restore order.
      • Congressman Melvin R. Laird appointed US Secretary of Defense.
      • Wisconsin's portion of Interstate Highway System completed.
      • Army Mathematics Research Building at the UW in Madison bombed by antiwar protestors, resulting in one death.
      • "Old Main"at Wisconsin State University- Whitewater burned down in apparent arson.
      • First elections to 4-year terms in Wisconsin history for all constitutional officers, based on constitutional amendment ratified in 1967.
      • UW scientists, headed by Dr. Har Gobind Khorana, succeeded in the first total synthesis of a gene.

      1971 - The legislature, now meeting in regular session throughout the biennium, enacted major shared tax redistribution, merger of University of Wisconsin and State University systems, revision of municipal employe relations laws.

      • Legislature enacted comprehensive consumer protection act, lowered the age of majority from 21 to 18, required environmental impact statement for all legislation affecting the environment, repealed railroad full crew law and ratified the unsuccessful "equal rights"amendment to US Constitution.
      • Record highway death toll, 1,168.
      • State constitutional amendment adopted permitting bingo. Barbara Thompson first woman to hold the elective office of State Superintendent of Public Instruction.
      • The 1954 Menominee Termination Act repealed by Congress. Legislature enacted state ethics code, repealed oleomargarine tax, funded programs for the education of all handicapped children, and established procedures for informal probate of simple estates.
      • Legislature enacted comprehensive campaign finance act and strengthened open meetings law.
      • Democrats swept all constitutional offices and gained control of both houses of the 1975 Legislature for first time since 1893.
      • Kathryn Morrison first woman elected to the state senate.
      • Striking teachers fired in Hortonville.

      1964-1975 - 165,400 Wisconsinites served in Vietnam 1,239 were killed.

      • Menominee Indians occupied Alexian Brothers Novitiate. Legislature made voter registration easier, established property tax levy limits on local governments,governments, and eliminated statutory distinctions based on sex.
      • UW-Madison scientist, Dr. Howard Temin, shared 1975 Nobel Prize in physiology-medicine.
      • US District Court ordered integration of Milwaukee public schools. Ice storm damage reached $50.4 million.
      • Wisconsin Legislature established a system for compensating crime victims.
      • Exxon discovered sulfide zinc and copper deposits in Forest County.
      • Shirley S. Abrahamson was appointed first woman on the Wisconsin Supreme Court.
      • Wisconsin Supreme Court declared negative school aids law unconstitutional.
      • Governor Patrick J. Lucey appointed Ambassador to Mexico, and Lieutenant Governor Martin Schreiber became "acting governor".
      • First state employes union strike lasted 15 days National Guard ran prisons.
      • Constitutional amendments authorized raffle games and revised the structure of the court system by creating a Court of Appeals.
      • Legislation enacted included public support of elections campaigns, no-fault divorce, and implied consent law for drunk driving.
      • Wisconsin Supreme Court allowed cameras in state courtrooms. Vel Phillips elected secretary of state, first Black constitutional officer.
      • Laws enacted included a hazardous waste management program.
      • Constitutional amendment removed lieutenant governor from serving as president of the senate.
      • Moratorium on tax collections gave state taxpayers a 3-month "vacation"from taxes.
      • Shirley S. Abrahamson, became the first woman elected to Wisconsin Supreme Court after serving by appointment for 3 years.
      • Legislature established school of veterinary medicine at the UW-Madison.
      • Eric Heiden of Madison won five Olympic gold medals for ice speed skating, named winner of the Sullivan Award as best amateur athlete in the country.
      • 15,000 Cuban refugees housed for the summer at Fort McCoy.
      • Former Governor Lucey ran as independent candidate for US Vice President.
      • State revenue shortfall led to 4.4 percent cuts in state spending.
      • Laws enacted included specific rights for victims and witnesses of crimes, and mental patient commitment revisions.
      • US Supreme Court ruled against Wisconsin's historic open primary.
      • Laws enacted included stronger penalties for drunk driving and changes in mining taxes.
      • State unemployment hit highest levels since the Great Depression.
      • Voters endorsed first statewide referendum in nation calling for a freeze on nuclear weapons.
      • Laws enacted included extensions in the fair employment law, an "employes' rightto- know"law pertaining to toxic substances in the workplace, a new public records law, and a historic preservation law.
      • Jos. Schlitz Brewing Co. acquired by Stroh Brewing Co. of Detroit, all Milwaukee operations closed.
      • Continued recession forced adoption of budget including a 10 percent tax surcharge and a pay freeze for state employes.
      • Law raising minimum drinking age to 19 passed (effective 7/1/85). In oneday uprising, inmates at Waupun State Prison took 15 hostages, but released them uninjured.
      • Laws enacted included a "lemon law"on motor vehicle warranties, changes in child support collection procedures and levels.
      • UW-Madison School of Veterinary Medicine enrolled its first class.
      • Most powerful US tornado of 1984 destroyed Barneveld 9 dead.
      • Democratic party chose presidential convention delegates in caucuses rather than by presidential preference primary as a result of the Democratic National Committee rules changes.
      • Indian treaty rights to fish and hunt caused controversy.
      • First liver transplants in Wisconsin conducted at UW Hospital.
      • Laws enacted included a marital property reform act, groundwater protection act, establishment of high school graduation requirements, a "right-to-die"act, prohibition of smoking in public areas.
      • Economic conditions began to improve from the low-point of the previous 2 years.
      • Milwaukee air crash killed 31.
      • Major consolidation of state banks by large holding companies.
      • Laws enacted included authorization for public utilities toform holding companies, comparable worth and teen pregnancy prevention measures.
      • First state tax amnesty program.
      • Farm land values dropped across the state. Exxon dropped plans to develop copper mine near Crandon.
      • Laws enacted allowed regional banking, set sulfur dioxide emission limits, raised the drinking age to 21, and limited damages payable in malpractice actions.
      • Voters approved constitutional amendments allowing pari-mutuel betting and a state lottery.
      • Laws enacted included a mandatory seatbelt law, antitakeover legislation, gradual end to the inheritance and gift taxes and a "learnfare"program designed to keep in school the children of families receiving Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC).
      • G. Heileman Brewing Company taken over by Alan Bond.
      • Driest summer since the 1930s.
      • The first state lottery games began.
      • Chrysler Corporation's automobile assembly plant in Kenosha, the nation's oldest car plant, closed.
      • Laws enacted included mandatory family leave for employes.

      1989 - Laws enacted included creation of Department of Corrections, the Lower Wisconsin State Riverway and a statewide land stewardship program.

      • More than 1,400 Wisconsin National Guard and Reserve soldiers were called to active duty in Persian Gulf crisis, 11 casualties.
      • The number of Milwaukee murders set a new record, raising demands for crime and drug controls.
      • Laws enacted included a major recycling law and Milwaukee Parental Choice voucher program for public and nonsectarian private schools.
      • The price of raw milk hit lowest point since 1978. First Indian gambling compacts signed.
      • Governor Tommy G. Thompson vetoed a record 457 items in the state budget.
      • Train derailment caused major spill of toxic chemicals and evacuation of over 22,000 people in Superior.
      • Thousands of opponents, including children, staged protests at 6 abortion clinics in Milwaukee throughout the summer.
      • Laws enacted included parental consent for abortion,health care reform and creation of a 3-member Gaming Commission.
      • Wisconsin Congressman Les Aspin and UW-Madison President Donna Shalala named President Bill Clinton's Secretary of Defense and Secretary of Health and Human Services, respectively.
      • Thousands in Milwaukee became ill as a result of cryptosporidium in the water supply.
      • California passed Wisconsin in milk production. Republicans won control of state senate for the first time since 1974.
      • Laws enacted included a 1999 sunset for traditional welfare programs, a cap on school spending and permission to organize limited liability companies.

      1994 - Laws enacted included removal of about $1 billion in public school operating taxes from property tax by 1997, a new regulatory framework for Public Service Commission regulation of telecommunication utilities, and granting towns most of the same powers exercised by cities and villages.

      • Republicans won control of state assembly for the first time since 1970.
      • Elk reintroduced in northern Wisconsin. July heat wave contributed to 172 deaths.
      • Governor Thompson's new welfare reform plan, known as Wisconsin Works (W-2), received national attention.
      • Train derailment forced evacuation of Weyauwega. Pabst Brewing closed 152-year-old brewery in Milwaukee.
      • First successful legislative recall election in state history.

      1997 - Groundbreaking for controversial new Miller Stadium, future home of the Milwaukee Brewers baseball team.

      • Tammy Baldwin became first Wisconsin woman elected to the US Congress.
      • US Supreme Court upheld constitutionality of extension of Milwaukee Parental Choice school vouchers to religious schools.
      • Second state tax amnesty program.
      • Laws enacted included a mining moratorium, new penalties for failure to pay child support, truth-in-sentencing and protection of fetuses.
      • Governor Tommy Thompson began record fourth term.
      • Laws enacted included "smart growth", graduated drivers licensing, a sales tax rebate.
      • Supermax, the state's high security prison, opens at Boscobel.
      • Record low unemployment.

      21st Century Wisconsin History Timeline

      2000 - Legislature approves a local sales tax and revenue bonds for renovation of Lambeau Field, home of the Green Bay Packers.

      • Governor Thompson ends a record 14 years in office and assumes post of US Secretary of Health and Human Services.
      • Lt. Governor Scott McCallum becomes governor and appoints State Senator Margaret Farrow as the first woman to serve as lieutenant governor.

      2008 - Lake Delton in Wisconsin Dells completely drained after record rains caused its banks to burst

      2011 - Winter storm dumped nearly two feet of snow in some areas, wind chill temperatures were between -20 to -25F


      1800-1809 Timeline of Allen County, Indiana

      The 1800 census lists 5,641 people living in the Indiana Territory at the beginning of the 19th century. From Indiana State Museum on Twitter.

      Bison were still abundant over large portions of what would become the Indiana Territory and the state of Indiana. A bison is featured prominently on Indiana&rsquos state seal. Read more in Indiana at 200 (7): Bison Made First Indiana Road by Andrea Neal published September 8, 2013 on Indiana Policy.org .

      1800, April 24 - the Library of Congress was established by President John Adams. Housed in the Capitol, the collection consisted of 740 books and 3 maps. In 2013, the library's holdings include more than 32 million cataloged books and print materials in 470 languages and more than 61 million manuscripts., the original library was lost to fire during the War of 1812, so Congress purchased Thomas Jefferson&rsquos personal library, which became the foundation of the modern Library. For more see Fascinating Facts - About the Library (Library of Congress).

      1800, May 7 - President John Adams approved a bill to divide the Northwest Territory and create Indiana Territory establishing what is now Illinois, Wisconsin, portions of Michigan and Minnesota, with its capital at Vincennes. The bill was introduced to the House of Representatives on March 20. It passed in the House on March 31 and the Senate on April 21. It became law on July 4, 1800. Copied from May 8, 2017 post by Indiana Bicentennial Commission on Facebook. See IHB: Act Creating Indiana Territory 1800 on IN.gov . Indiana Territory information from page 4 of The Indiana Historian March 1996 and the 16 page Indiana Territory with maps and timelines on IN.gov .


      Indiana Historical Bureau photo

      1800, May 13 - twenty-seven year old William Henry Harrison was appointed governor of the Indiana Territory by John Adams, President of the United States. For more information see page 5 of The Indiana Historian March 1996 and Indiana at 200 (12): William Henry Harrison Shaped Indiana from Vincennes by Andrea Neal published November 18, 2013 on Indiana Policy.org . See May 13, 2019 and May 13, 2020 post by the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook .

      1800, May 19 - George Washington Whistler was born at the military outpost of Fort Wayne which his father, Major John Whistler (1756–1829), helped build the fort, was commandant and his wife, Anna Bishop. Ft. Wayne at that time was a part of the great Northwest Territory. His father, John Whistler, had been a British soldier under General Burgoyne at the battles of Saratoga in the revolutionary war, later to enlist in American service. Read more on George Washington Whistler.

      1800, July 4 - Indiana Territory officially separated from Northwest Territory from July 4, 2018 Tweet by the Indiana State Museum on Twitter.

      1801, February 17 - Thomas Jefferson was elected 3rd President of the United States. This election was the first peaceful transfer of power from one political party to another in the United States -- from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans. From History Channel on Facebook.

      1801, July 4 - Secretary of the Indiana Territory John Gibson attested that the population of the entire territory (for purposes of political representation) was 4,875. This included 135 enslaved persons despite the provision in the Northwest Ordinance that prohibited slavery in the territory. The eleventh column counted all other free persons "except Indians, not French." Copied from July 4, 2017 post with photo of the Schedule document on the Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook .

      1802, May 22 - the nation's 1st First Lady Martha Dandridge Custis Washington, born June 2, 1731, died of a severe fever at her home in Mt. Vernon, Virginia. When she married George Washington in January 1759, she was twenty-seven years old and a widowed mother of two. She was also one of the wealthiest women in Virginia, having inherited some 15,000 acres of farmland from her deceased husband, Daniel Parke Custis. Copied from May 22, 2013 Accessible Archives on Facebook.

      1802, December 10 - William Clark, of the Lewis and Clark expedition (and brother of George Rogers Clark), filed a document that released Ben McGee from enslavement. The following day, Clark turned McGee's enslavement into an indenture of thirty years servitude. The practice of emancipating enslaved persons who had been brought into Indiana Territory, and then forcing them to enter into long-term indentures was commonly practiced to circumvent territorial laws prohibiting slavery. Indentured servitude remained common practice until the Indiana Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional in 1821. Learn more about the history of slavery and indentured servitude in Indiana here: Almost a Free StateThe Indiana Constitution of 1816 and the Problem of Slavery by Paul Finkleman published in the March 2015 Indiana Magazine of History. Copied from a December 10, 2018 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook with an image that shows a reconstruction of the cabin in which Ben McGee and his wife lived on the Clark property, courtesy of the Falls of the Ohio State Park.

      1803, March 1 - Ohio became the 17th state, known as the Buckeye State

      1803, April 30 - a treaty dated April 30 and signed May 2 called the Louisiana Purchase nearly doubled the size of the United States during President Thomas Jefferson's term. U.S. representatives in Paris agreed to pay $15 million for about 828,000 square miles of land that stretched from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains and from the Gulf of Mexico to Canada. The territory was formally transferred December 20, 1803 in ceremonies in New Orleans. Read 8 Things You May Not Know About the Louisiana Purchase on History.com.

      1803, May 25 - Ralph Waldo Emerson was born. He was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .

      1803, June 21 - Elihu Stout brought the first printing press to Vincennes, Indiana, see The Perils Of Pioneer Publishing by the Staff of the Indiana Magazine of History.

      1803, August 3 - Stephen Johnston, first child of John and Rachel Johnston, was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana. According to the book &lsquoHeadwaters of the Maumee&rsquo, Stephen was the first white child born in Fort Wayne. From July 15, 2017 post on Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook . See Find A Grave memorial. See a timeline through 1830s posted November 8, 2016 on Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook .

      1803, October 20 - the U.S. ratified the Louisiana Purchase that nearly doubled the size of the United States. 1st of three big land grabs by the young United States, followed by the 1819 purchase of Florida and 1867 Purchase of Alaska. Read more in Primary Documents in American History Louisiana Purchase and, Westward Ho! Today in History - October 20 both at The Library of Congress , How the Louisiana Purchase Changed the World published April 2003 on Smithsonian.com and Louisiana Purchase, 1803 at U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian .

      1803, October 26 - the Lewis and Clark expedition started in Clarksville, Indiana when William Clark and Meriwether Lewis met and left for St. Louis. Read more about William Clark who was living in a cabin overlooking the Falls of the Ohio in Clarksville, Indiana Territory with his older brother General George Rogers Clark at Lewis and Clark - The Indiana Connection on IN.gov and see a historical marker photo. Indiana at 200 (13): Lewis and Clark Joined Forces Here by Andrea Neal published December 2, 2013 on Indiana Policy.org .

      1803, November 28 - the Lewis and Clark expedition party landed near Kaskaskia, Indiana Territory. That same day, Lewis left Clark in charge of the boat. He left December 5 on horseback for St. Louis to meet with the Spanish commandant. Learn more about Lewis and Clark in Indiana with Lewis and Clark - Indiana Connections in The Indiana Historian. Copied from November 28, 2017 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook .

      1804, May 14 - The Lewis and Clark expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory leaves St. Louis in the Louisiana Territory. Thomas Jefferson had been trying to send explorers to the American West for years. Read more from the May 14, 2013 Writer's Almanac on The History Center Facebook page.

      1804, July 11 - Alexander Hamilton, one time aide-de-camp to George Washington and former Secretary of the Treasury was mortally wounded in a duel with the sitting Vice President of the United States, Aaron Burr, in Weehawken, New Jersey. Hamilton died the next day and Burr's political career was effectively ruined by the episode. From July 11, 2013 George Washington Birthplace National Monument on Facebook. Read his letter to his wife Elizabeth Hamilton on Today's Document on The National Archives tumblr and his Alexander Hamilton Papers at The Library of Congress .

      1804, July 31 - Elihu Stout published the first newspaper in the Indiana Territory. The first issue of the Indiana Gazette does not appear in any library catalog, and may have been lost to time. The second issue, published on August 7, 1804 and other extant issues for 1805 and 1806 are digitally available in Hoosier State Chronicles: Indiana Gazette . The second issue is also on the blog Today in Hoosier History: Indiana Territory’s First Newspaper Published by Chandler Lighty posted July 31, 2014 in the Indiana Historic Newspaper Digitization Project blog. A similar post with photo was July 31, 2018 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook .

      1804, December 5 - Indiana territory elects a General Assembly

      1805, January 11 - Michigan Territory formed

      1805, July 29 - July 29, 1805, the General Assembly of the Indiana Territory met for the first time in Vincennes at the Indiana Territorial Capitol. Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison (pictured below) urged the legislators to &ldquostrive to accomplish the wishes of the friends of representative government and to disappoint its enemies.&rdquo The session lasted until August 26 and the legislators passed thirty-three laws, which codified the courts, taxes, debt relief for prisoners, and established weights and measures. One of the more controversial acts they passed was a slavery law that allowed slaveholders to keep enslaved persons in the Indiana Territory if they were purchased outside of it. This legislation was in direct violation of Article VI of the Northwest Ordinance that prohibited the slavery in the territory. The act created pushback from newspapers in Cincinnati, and Washington, D.C. publicly denounced it. In a challenging contradiction, Harrison himself brought slaves to the territory, all the while calling for &ldquorepresentative government.&rdquo The process to reverse this law began with statehood in 1816. Learn more about the Indiana Territory here: Indiana Territoryin the Indiana Historian magazine March 1999. Copied from a July 29, 2018 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook . The Territory was divided into five counties - St. Clair, Randolph, Knox, Clark and Dearborn. There had been six counties, but Wayne was cut off by the act establishing the Michigan Territory. See IHB: Indiana Territory from July 29, 2015 Facebook post by Indiana Bicentennial Commission and July 29, 2017 by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook .

      1805, September 3 - Rebeckah Johnston is born in Fort Wayne from July 26, 2017 post by Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook . Her brother Stephen was the first child born August 3, 1803 in Fort Wayne, Indiana Territory.

      1806 - A group of Quakers arrive in Fort Wayne to help Little Turtle and his son-in-law, William Wells, in a project to teach the Miami to become farmers. Wells, an American, had been Anthony Wayne's military scout and interpreter. The project did little to reverse damage to Miami people that resulted from liquor, disease and loss of their land. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper.

      1806, May 9 - Paris C. Dunning was born in Greensboro, North Carolina. As a young man he moved to Indiana where he studied law. He got involved in politics and became the only person to hold all four elected state offices under the 1816 Constitution: State Representative, State Senator, Lieutenant Governor, and Governor. IHB: Indiana Governor Paris Chipman Dunning (1806 - 1884) From Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook

      1806, September 23 - Lewis and Clark expedition returns to St. Louis from the Pacific Northwest.

      1806, November 29 - Vincennes University was incorporated. The very first college in Indiana was founded in 1801 by William Henry Harrison. One of only two U.S. colleges founded by a President of the United States. William Henry Harrison was the 9th U.S. President. Copie from November 29, 2016 Facebook post by Indiana Bicentennial Commission .

      In 1807 a Quaker mission to teach the Indians how to farm in Fort Wayne failed partially due to the interference of William Wells. In May, 1807 John Johnston made serious charges against him. Read the rest posted August 4, 2017 on Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook .

      1807, February 27 - Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine.

      1807, March 2 - Congress outlaws importation of slaves. Domestic slave trade endures for 58+ years. From March 2, 2016 Twitter tweet by The National Museum of American History . See The Business of Slavery.

      1807, March 26 - Britain abolishes its slave trade.

      1807, September - Elizabeth Johnson was born in blockhouse #1 Fort Wayne. Her sister, Rebeckah, died approximately 6 months before she was born. Her father John was US Factor to the Indians. Copied from a February 21, 2017 and again July 29, 2017 post by Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook .

      1808 - John Johnston became assistant surgeon at Fort Wayne. Discussed August 7, 2017 on Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook .

      1809 - John Johnston was appointed Indian Agent in Fort Wayne. William Wells was terminated as Indian Agent on January 28, 1809 and all govt. property was turned over to Johnston. He was now both Factor and Indian Agent. One duty of the agent was payment of annuities. He also had to appraise and report the doings of the British. In 1809, JJ&rsquos brother Stephen is appointed clerk at the Factory in Fort Wayne. From Johnston 101 continued August 10, 2017 on Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook .

      1809, February 3 - Indiana Territory is divided into two governments forming Illinois Territory. See history of the Indiana Territory in the 16 page March 1999 The Indiana Historian from February 3, 2017 Indiana Bicentennial Commission Facebook post.

      1809, February 12 - Abraham Lincoln was born in a one-room log cabin on the Sinking Spring Farm in Hardin County, Kentucky (now LaRue County). Lincoln's paternal grandfather and namesake, Abraham, had moved his family from Virginia to Kentucky, where he was ambushed and killed in an Indian raid in 1786, with his children, including Lincoln's father Thomas, looking on. It is a legal holiday in Indiana since Thomas Lincoln moved his family in 1816 because of land title disputes to then Perry County, now Spencer County, Indiana. See Abraham Lincoln on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia .

      1809, July 02 - Rosanna Johnston daughter of John Johnston Indian Agent and Factor is born in Fort Wayne. From Johnston 101 continued August 10, 2017 on Johnston Farm & Indian Agency on Facebook .

      1809, September 30 - Indiana Gov. William Henry Harrison arrives in Fort Wayne to negotiate the final treaty with the Miami. His official reports say he refused to give liquor to the Indians, but other reports say he got the Indians drunk and tricked them into signing over nearly 3 million acres of Indian lands. Tecumseh gathers 1,000 warriors to protest Harrison's treachery. From Millennium milestones in Fort Wayne in the archives of The News-Sentinel newspaper. Territorial Governor William Henry Harrison then signed a treaty with American Indians that opened up 3,000,000 acres for settlement. It was called the Treaty of Fort Wayne or "Ten O'Clock Line Treaty" because the border was determined by a shadow cast by the sun each September 30 at 10:00 a.m. Copied from September 30, 2017 and September 30, 2014 post by Indiana Historical Bureau on Facebook . See INDIAN AFFAIRS: LAWS AND TREATIES Vol. II, Treaties Compiled and edited by Charles J. Kappler. Washington : Government Printing Office, 1904 produced by the Oklahoma State University Libraryand Journal of the Proceedings Indian Treaty Fort Wayne, September 30, 1809 at hathitrust.org or Google book.

      Copyright © Allen INGenWeb 1996 to
      Allen County Genealogical Society of Indiana, ACGSI, is web host for Allen INGenWeb.
      Allen INGenWeb content, design, and ACGSI social media by Stanley J. Follis.


      History of Mental Illness

      trepanation has been used to “cure” mental illness. Thousands of years ago, having no knowledge of things like brain chemistry, ancient doctors (a loose definition, for lack of a better term) believed that the mentally ill were possessed by demons hanging around in our heads. What better way to rid us of the demons than by giving them a way out? And so, holes were drilled into the skulls of the patients so that the spirits could escape.

      Hysteria therapy

      Hysteria was diagnosed for anything from nervousness to fainting to simply not talking enough.patients were required to inhale foul-smelling substances that would drive away the uterus from wherever it was kicking up a storm in the body. Of course, the real cure for female mental illness was to get the uterus settled in doing what it was there for. Women needed to get married and start having babies.

      Hippocrates

      First physician to base treatment on the belief that has a strong healing force. Proper diet, exercise, and personal hygiene were his mainstay of treatment. viewed mental illness as a result of an imbalance of humors. (humoral theory of disease

      Plato

      Greek philosopher, life was a dynamic balance maintained by the soul. according to Plato a "ration soul" resided in the head and an "irrational soul" was found in the heart and abdomen. he believed that if the rational was unable to control the undirected parts irrational soul, mental illness resulted.

      Middle Ages AKA Dark ages

      Was believed that disease was either punishment for sins, possession by the devil, or the result of witchcart. To "cure" mental illness priest performed demonical exorcisms

      First insitution for the mentally ill

      the first english institution for mentally ill people was initially a hospice founded in 1247 by the sheriff of London.

      Bethlelhem

      Bethlehem hospital had developed into a lunatic asylum that was infamous for its brutal treatments. the were treated harshly like burning at the stake.

      Witch hunting

      few safe heaven for people with mental illness. many though women were carriers of the devil.The textbook The Witches Hammer was a pornography and psychopathology. A "textbook of the Inquisition" that resulted in many women and children and any mentally ill people to be tortured and burned.

      Mesmerism

      like the oceans tides, as the bodily fluids were being acted on by the moon’s gravity. The solution was to counteract the gravity with another force: magnets. By placing magnets on various parts of the body, Mesmer felt the bodily fluids were redistributed and mental equilibrium was restored. Although many of Mesmer’s patients claimed the therapy cured them, medical authorities dismissed mesmerism as ineffective, and positive outcomes were chalked up to the placebo effect.

      Fever therapy

      infected a syphilis patient with malaria and the resulting fever cured the patient of the psychosis caused by his syphilis. Other diseases have been used to trigger brief fevers for the treatment of mental illness

      Rotational therapy

      Charles Darwin believed that disease could be cured by sleep. And he believed that spinning the patient around very fast induced sleep. believed that mental illness was caused by brain congestion, and that spinning would reduce the congestion and cure the mental disorder. We can safely assume that dizziness was the main result of his therapy, not cure.

      Hydrotherapy

      patients wrapped like mummies in towels soaked in ice water. Another “cure” took the relaxing bath to scary extremes, strapping and restraining patients in the tub for sometimes days at a time, allowing escape only for bathroom breaks. High-pressure water jets were also used, and in at least one instance a patient was bound in a crucifix position and a fire hose was turned on him.

      Insulin-coma therapy

      Viennese doctor Manfred Sakel developed insulin-coma therapy in 1927. Apparently not a particularly careful doctor, he accidently gave one of his patients an insulin overdose, resulting in her falling into a coma. The patient, who was a morphine addict, awoke from her coma and discovered that her addiction had disappeared. Sakel, being the bad doctor he was, made the same mistake with another patient who also awoke addiction-free. Sensing a trend, Sakel began intentionally inducing insulin comas to schizophrenics and other patients, and 90% of them reportedly were cured. It is unknown why or even if these claims were true, but thankfully the insulin-coma therapy eventually faded away by the 1960s. A good thing, since it was a dangerous therapy and 2% of the patients weren’t cured, they died.

      Chemically induced seizures

      A pathologist named Ladislas von Meduna observed that, following seizures, epileptics appeared calm and even happy. From this he deduced that by inducing seizures in schizophrenics he could calm their symptoms and even perhaps cure them. After experimenting with drugs like strychnine and absinthe, he settled on a drug called metrazol, which stimulated the circulatory and respiratory systems and caused seizures. but some side effects were memory loss and fractured bones were not exactly minor

      Lobotomy

      The lobotomy was developed by a Portuguese neurosurgeon named Egas Moniz. He had heard that when the frontal lobe of a violent, feces-throwing monkey was cut away, the monkey became docile and quit slinging the shit. From this, he theorized that the frontal lobe was the hotbed of mental illness and by cutting it he could cure mental illness. And so he tried it on his human patients. By his own standards, the surgeries were a success, and lobotomies caught on. In 1949, Moniz even received the Nobel Prize for his efforts.


      Eliza Edmunds Hewitt: Songs from a Bed of Pain

      Can there be a purpose in a crippling ailment? Eliza Hewitt may have wondered that.

      Eliza was born on this day, June 28, 1851 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Educated in the local school system, she graduated as valedictorian of the Girl's Normal School that she attended. She became a teacher in the public schools of her city.

      But then came misery. Her career screeched to a halt when she was forced to bed with a painful spinal problem. (One of her descendants has contacted us and said her debilitating condition was caused by an reckless student striking her with a piece of slate.) Lying in bed, she could have been bitter. Instead, she studied English literature and began to sing and write:

      Sing the wondrous love of Jesus sing his mercy and his grace.
      In the mansions bright and blessed he'll prepare for us a place.

      Some of her lines came into the hands of Professor John R. Sweney. He wrote her asking for more, and set a few of her songs to music, including one of the better known: "Will there be any Stars in My Crown?" He and William J. Kirkpatrick published her first hymns.

      We remember Eliza Hewitt today because of those hymns. Had she never been bed-ridden, she might not have written them. Among the best known are, "Give Me Thy Heart, Says the Father Above," "When We All Get to Heaven," "Sunshine in My Soul," "Will there be any Stars in My Crown?" and "More About Jesus Would I Know."

      Later Eliza's well-being improved, although she suffered re-occurrences for the rest of her life. Despite her health problems, she was deeply interested in Sunday school work, and superintended a Sunday school for the Northern Home for Friendless Children. This was followed by similar work in the Calvin Presbyterian Church. At one point, she had a class of 200!


      Timeline 1800-1809 - History

      • The Almanac Duty was repealed in 1834.
      • The Newspaper Duty rate was reduced in 1836, made optional in 1855, and repealed in 1870. Payment of the Newspaper Duty granted free postage, and proposals to remove the duty prompted the introduction of postage stamps.
      • The Paper Duty was repealed in 1861.
      • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 22, 16 Jan. 1732 - 8 Dec. 1737, p. 385, 393, 436, 442, 462-465, 472, 476.
        • The warrant, dated 18 Oct. 1727, is reproduced on p. 393. The committee's report on p. 462-465 includes a history of the franking privilege, and references to earlier documents of the 1660's.

        1767, 7 George III c. 50, An Act for amending certain Laws relating to the Revenue of the Post Office, . (link)

        • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 42, p. 800-832.
        • Tenth Report, The Post Office, 30 June 1788, p. 755-905.
        • subject index (1840 index p. I.2-31)
        • The ten reports are dated 11 April 1786 to 30 June 1788 ordered to be printed 15 July 1806. Each report has an appendix.
          1. Secretaries of State, p. 3, 17
          2. Treasury, p. 49, 61
          3. Admiralty, p. 93, 107
          4. Treasurer of the Navy, p. 131, 143
          5. Commissioners of the Navy, p. 165, 191
          6. Dockyards, p. 277, 319
          7. Sick and Hurt Office, p. 507, 519
          8. Victualling Office, p. 549, 591
          9. Naval and Victualling Departments Abroad, p. 723, 739
          10. Post Office, p. 755-797, 799-905
        • The reports alone, ordered to be printed 17 June 1793, London : J. Debrett, 1793, 312 p.
            [KBNL]
        • Tenth Report, Post Office, 30 June 1788, 37 p. (link)
        • -- GK entry number 15660, Reel 1530.
        • offered for sale, 2017 (link)
          • Excerpted, J. Debrett, The Parliamentary Register, 1798, vol. 5, p. 75-82 (link).
          • Reprinted in full, Reports from Committees of the House of Commons, 1803, vol. XII, p. 154-177 (link).
          • The Public Revenue for 1797-98 the Stamp Office, vol. XIII, p. 5 (link), 716-717 (link), 744 (link).
          • Excerpted, J. Debrett, The Parliamentary Register, 1798, vol. 5, p. 83-118 (link).
          • Reprinted in full, Reports from Committees of the House of Commons, 1803, vol. XII, p. 178-222 (link).
          • The Public Revenue for 1797-98 the Post Office, vol. XIII, p. 6 (link), 81-82 (link), 717-720 (link), 745 (link).
          • subject index (1840 index p. I.2-31)
            [British Library]
        • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 32, Session 1796-97 vol. 33, Session 1796-97
        • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 52, Session 1796-97, index
        • Journals of the House of Lords, vol. 41, Session 1796-97
        • Parliamentary Papers, Table and Index of Public General Acts
        • The Statutes at Large, 37 George III
          • Public Acts, titles, acts, index
          • Private Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]
          • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 33, Session 1797-98
          • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 53, Session 1797-98, index
          • Journals of the House of Lords, vol. 41, Session 1797-98
          • Parliamentary Papers, Table and Index of Public General Acts
          • The Statutes at Large, 38 George III
            • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
            • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
            • Private Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]
            • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 33, Session 1798-99
            • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 54, Session 1798-99, index
            • Journals of the House of Lords, vol. 42, Session 1798-99
            • Parliamentary Papers, Table and Index of Public General Acts
            • The Statutes at Large, 39 George III
              • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
              • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
              • Private Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]
              • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 34, Session 1799-1800 vol. 35, Session 1799-1800
              • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 55, Session 1799-1800, index
              • Journals of the House of Lords, vol. 42, Session 1799-1800
              • Parliamentary Papers, Table and Index of Public General Acts
              • The Statutes at Large, 39 & 40 George III
                • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                • Private Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]
                • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 35, Session 1800
                • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 55, Session 1800, index
                • Journals of the House of Lords, vol. 42, Session 1800
                • Parliamentary Papers, Table and Index of Public General Acts
                • The Statutes at Large, 41 George III (GB)
                  • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                  • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                  • Private Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]
                  • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 35, Session 1801
                  • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 56, Session 1801, appendix, index
                  • Journals of the House of Lords, vol. 43, Session 1801
                  • Parliamentary Papers, Table and Index of Public General Acts
                  • The Statutes of the United Kingdom, 41 George III (UK)
                    • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                    • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                    • Private Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]
                    • 41 George III c. 7, 24 Mar. 1801. An Act for repealing the Rates and Duties of Postage in Great Britain, and granting other Rates and Duties in lieu thereof, . (link).

                    Bill for more effectually preventing Forgery of Bank Notes, Bills of Exchange and Post Bills.
                    A bill for the more effectually preventing the forgery of bank notes, bank bills of exchange, and bank post bills.
                    1801 (35) I.111, 6 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                    Bill for more effectually preventing Forgery of Bank Notes, Bills of Exchange and Post Bills (as amended by Committee).
                    A bill [as amended by the committee] for the more effectually preventing the forgery of bank notes, bank bills of exchange, and bank post bills.
                    1801 (53) I.125, 6 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                    Bill for better Prevention of Forgery of Notes and Bills of Exchange of Persons carrying on Business of Bankers.
                    A bill for the better prevention of the forgery of the notes and bills of exchange of persons carrying on the business of bankers.
                    1801 (61) I.143, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                    Bill for better Prevention of Forgery of Notes and Bills of Exchange of Persons carrying on Business of Bankers.
                    A bill for the better prevention of the forgery of the notes and bills of exchange of persons carrying on the business of bankers.
                    1801 (72) I.173, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                    Bill for better Prevention of Forgery of Notes and Bills of Exchange of Persons carrying on Business of Bankers (as amended by Committee).
                    A bill [as amended by the committee] for the better prevention of the forgery of the notes and bills of exchange of persons carrying on the business of bankers.
                    1801 (90) I.243, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                    Accounts relating to Customs, Excise, Stamp Duties and Post Office of Ireland Abstract of Appropriated Duties State of Establishment and Charges for Government of Ireland, and State of National Account.
                    Accounts, presented to the House of Commons, respecting that part of the United Kingdom called Ireland.
                    1801 (22) V.183, 34 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                    http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8270

                    Account of Produce of Stamp Duties in England and Scotland, and Cash received on English and Irish Lotteries, 1800.
                    Accounts, presented to the House of Commons, respecting the stamp duties of Great Britain.
                    1801 (91) VI.637, 22 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                    Account of Produce of Duties of Customs, Excise, Stamps and Incidents.
                    Accounts, presented to the House of Commons, from the Treasury, respecting the produce of the duties of customs, excise, stamps, and incidents, for one year, ending the fifth day of January, 1801: &c. &c.
                    1801 (103) VI.661, 20 p. PDF [ProQuest]


                    Session 1801-02, 29 October 1801 - 28 June 1802, 7 volumes

                    • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 36, Session 1801-02
                    • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 57, Session 1801-02, appendix, index
                    • Journals of the House of Lords, vol. 43, Session 1801-02
                    • Parliamentary Papers, Table and Index of Public General Acts
                    • The Statutes of the United Kingdom, 42 George III
                      • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                      • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                      • Private Acts, titles, short titles (continued), acts [not printed]
                      • 42 George III c. 11, 11 Dec. 1801. An Act to remove certain Restraints upon the Correspondence by Letter between Persons residing in Great Britain and Ireland, and Persons residing in certain Foreign Countries. (link)
                      • 42 George III c. 63, 22 June 1802. An Act to authorize the sending and receiving of Letters and Packets, Votes, Proceedings in Parliament, and printed Newspapers by the Post, free from the Duty of Postage, by the Members of the Two Houses of Parliament of the United Kingdom, and by certain publick Officers therein named and for reducing the Postage on such Votes, Proceedings and Newspapers when sent by any other Persons. (link).
                        • Transcribed, http://www.gbps.org.uk/
                        • Hansard, The Parliamentary History of England, vol. 36, Session 1802-03
                        • Journals of the House of Commons, vol. 58, Session 1802-03, appendix, index
                          • digital version not yet located
                          • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                          • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                          • Private and Personal Acts, titles [The Statutes at Large, Pickering ed.], short titles, acts [not printed]


                          Session 1803-04, 22 November 1803 - 31 July 1804, 13 volumes

                          • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, first series, vol. 1, appendix, index vol. 2, appendix, index transcribed
                            • List of Acts, vol. 1, vol. 1, vol. 2
                            • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                            • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                            • Private and Personal Acts, titles [The Statutes at Large, Pickering ed.], short titles, acts [not printed]
                            • Irish Stamp Duties Bill, vol. 2, p. 881 (link)
                            • Stamp Duties Bill, vol. 2, p. 921, 960, 1012, 1035, 1060, 1085 (link)

                            Accounts relating to Payments into Treasury of Ireland from Ordinary Revenues, Funded Debt, and Balances of Stamps and Post Office Revenues.
                            Accounts, presented to the House of Commons, respecting the payments into the Treasury, the funded debt, the stamp-office balances, and, the post-office balances, of Ireland.
                            1803-04 (162) VIII.841, 8 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                            http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8344

                            Account of gross Produce of Stamp Duties, 1803.
                            An account of the gross produce of the stamp duties, for the year ended the 5th January 1804 distinguishing, as far as possible, the amount arising from each document, article, instrument, or thing, on which the duty attaches.
                            1803-04 (174) VIII.901, 10 p. PDF [ProQuest]


                            Session 1805, 15 January - 12 July, 11 volumes

                            • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, first series, vol. 3, appendix, index vol. 4, appendix, index vol. 5, appendix, index transcribed
                              • List of Public Acts, vol. 5
                              • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                              • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                              • Private and Personal Acts, titles [The Statutes at Large, Pickering ed.], short titles, acts [not printed]
                              • Irish Post Roads Bill, vol. 4, p. 130 (link)
                              • Irish Stamp Duties Bill, vol. 4, p. 636 (link)

                              Bill to amend Act for amending Laws for improving Post Roads in Ireland, and for rendering Conveyance of Letters by H.M. Post Office more expeditious.
                              (Ireland.) A bill to amend an act, made in the Parliament of Ireland, in the thirty-second year of His Present Majesty, and for more effectually improving and keeping in repair the post roads in Ireland and for rendering the conveyance of letters by His Majesty's Post Office more secure and expeditious.
                              1805 (97) I.391, 16 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                              http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8360

                              Bill to extend provisions of Laws for Punishment of Forgery of Bank Notes, Bills of Exchange and Securities to United Kingdom.
                              A bill to alter and extend the provisions of the laws now in force for the punishment of the forgery of bank notes, bills of exchange, and other securities, to every part of the United Kingdom.
                              1805 (178) I.805, 6 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                              Account of Number of Stamps on Licenses for killing Game in Ireland, 1801-04.
                              (Ireland.) Stamps on licences for killing game, from January 1801 to January 1805 &c.
                              1805 (133) VI.539, 2 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                              http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8397

                              Account of Balances in hands of Receiver General of Post Office, 1793-1805.
                              An account of the balances remaining with the Receiver General of the Post Office, on the 5th day of January, the 5th day of March, the 5th day of April, the 5th day of June, the 5th day of July, the 5th day of September, the 5th day of October, and the 5th day of December from the year 1793 inclusive, to the 5th April last (1805) in the hands of John Mortlock, Esquire, Receiver General of the Post Office.
                              1805 (209) IX.185, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                              Statement of Balances in hands of Receiver General of Stamp Duties, 1793-1805.
                              A statement of balances in the hands of the Receivers General of the Stamp Duties from the 5th day of January 1793 to the 5th day of April 1805.
                              1805 (212) IX.197, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]


                              Session 1806, 21 January - 23 July, 19 volumes

                              • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, first series, vol. 6, appendix, index vol. 7, appendix, index transcribed
                                • List of Public Acts, vol. 7
                                • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                                • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                                • Private and Personal Acts, titles [Tomlins ed.], short titles, acts [not printed]

                                Bill for better Regulation of Office of Receiver General of Post Office of Great Britain.
                                A bill for the better regulation of the office of Receiver General of the Post Office of Great Britain.
                                1806 (164) I.383, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                Bill to amend Act for amending Laws for improving Post Roads in Ireland, and for rendering Conveyance of Letters by H.M. Post Office more expeditious.
                                (Ireland). A bill to amend an act, made in the last session of Parliament, for amending the laws for improving and keeping in repair the post roads in Ireland, and for rendering the conveyance of letters by His Majesty's Post Office more secure and expeditious.
                                1806 (184) I.433, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                                http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8443

                                1806 (309) VII.1, see above, 1700's

                                Coms. of Inquiry into Fees and Emoluments received in Public Offices in Ireland, Second Report (Stamps), Appendix.
                                (Ireland.) The second report of the commissioners appointed to enquire into the fees, gratuities, perquisites, and emoluments, which are or have been lately received in certain public offices in Ireland and also, to examine into any abuses which may exist in the same and into the present mode of receiving, collecting, issuing, and accounting for public money in Ireland.
                                1806 (270) VIII.387, 86 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                                http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8453

                                • 1, Customs, 1806 (6) VIII.1
                                • 2, Stamps, 1806 (270) VIII.387
                                • 3, Assessed Taxes, 1806-07 (1) VI.1
                                • 4, Land Revenue of the Crown, 1806-07 (2) VI.45
                                • 5, Excise, Distillation, 1806-07 (124) VI.139
                                • 6, Excise, Malt, 1808 (4) III.461
                                • 7, Excise, Auctions, Cards and Dice, etc., 1809 (15) VII.1
                                • 8, Mode of Accounting for Excise Duties, 1809 (52) VII.83
                                • 9, General Post Office, 1810 (5) X.1 see Session 1810
                                • 9, Supplement, GPO, 1810 (366) X.94 see Session 1810
                                • 10, Arrears and Balances, 1810 (234) X.141
                                • 8, 10, Memorial, 1812 (70) V.385
                                • 8, 10, Supplement, 1812 (35) V.295
                                • 11, Arrears and Balances, part 1, 1810-11 (55) VI.939
                                • 11, part 2, 1812 (34) V.432
                                • 11, part 3, 1812-13 (123) VI.241
                                • 12, Board of Works, 1812 (33) V.191
                                • 13, Inland Navigation, 1812-13 (61) VI.317
                                • 14, Treasury, 1813-14 (102) VII.1
                                • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, first series, vol. 8, appendix, index vol. 9 transcribed
                                  • List of Public Acts, vol. 9
                                  • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                                  • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                                  • Private and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]

                                  1806-07 (153) I.247, Duty on Paper

                                  Resolutions of Committee of Whole House of Commons relating to Stamp Duties of Ireland, February 1807.
                                  (Ireland.) Resolutions relating to the stamp duties of Ireland.
                                  1806-07 (80) VI.393, 16 p. PDF [ProQuest]


                                  Session 1807, 22 June - 14 August, 5 volumes

                                  • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, first series, vol. 9, appendix, index transcribed
                                    • List of Public Acts, vol. 9
                                    • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                                    • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                                      • c.cxxxi, Fourdrinier's Paper-Making Machine (link)

                                      Bill to repeal Duties of Excise and Stamps in Ireland, and to grant new Stamp Duties in lieu.
                                      A bill [as amended by the committee] to repeal certain duties of excise, and also certain stamp duties, in Ireland, and to grant certain new stamp duties in lieu thereof and to amend the laws relating to the stamp duties in Ireland.
                                      1807 (53) I.207, 12 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                                      http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8489

                                      An Act for prolonging the Term of certain Letters Patent assigned to Henry Fourdrinier and Sealy Four-drinier, for the Invention of making Paper by means of Machinery. [14th August 1807.]

                                      Account of gross and net Produce of Post Office, 1723-87.
                                      No I. Post-Office. An account of the gross and net produce of the Post Office from Lady-Day 1723, to 5th April 1787.
                                      1807 (43) IV.71, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                      Account of additional Duties and Increase of Produce of Post Office, 1793-1806.
                                      No 2. Post-Office. An account from 1793 to January 1807, under their proper dates, of any additional duties that have been laid on during that period and also, the increase of produce from such additional duties as far as the same can be made out.
                                      1807 (44) IV.75, 2 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                      Account of gross and net Produce of Post Office, 1783-1806.
                                      Post-Office. An account of the gross and net produce of the Post-Office from the 5th April 1783 to the 5th January 1807: distinguishing each year the produce of the restriction of franking or of any new rates during that period: as far as the same can be made out.
                                      1807 (74) IV.77, 2 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                      Return from Post Office of Ireland on Miscarriage of Letters containing Bank Notes, July 1807.
                                      (Ireland.) Return from the Post-Office in Ireland, to an order of the House of Commons, dated the 7th July, 1807 relating to the miscarriage of letters containing bank notes.
                                      1807 (87) V.53, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                      1807 (HL.36) XIV, Fourdrinier, Invention for making paper by means of machinery. Minutes of evidence on the Bill, Lords committee.


                                      Session 1808, 21 January - 4 July, 15 volumes

                                      • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, first series, vol. 10, index vol. 11, appendix, index transcribed
                                        • List of Public Acts, vol. 11
                                        • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                                        • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                                        • Private and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]

                                        Bill to repeal Stamp Duties on Licenses for selling Ale, Beer and Exciseable Liquors by Retail.
                                        A bill to repeal the stamp duties on licences granted by justices of the peace for selling ale, beer, and other excisable liquors by retail and for granting other duties in lieu thereof.
                                        1808 (262) I.559, 8 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                        Account of cash balances in hands of Bank of Ireland (Postmaster General).
                                        1808 (227) VI.207, 2 p.
                                        http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8523

                                        Account of Establishment of Government Expresses between London, Holyhead and Dublin, 1801-07.
                                        Post Office. An account of the sums paid for the establishment of government expresses between London and Holyhead, and between Holyhead and Dublin from the 1st January 1801 to the 1st January 1808 distinguishing each year and shewing from what fund the same have been paid.
                                        1808 (108) VI.239, 2 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                        Letter of Postmaster General of Ireland on Extension of Buildings at General Post Office in Dublin, November 1807.
                                        (Ireland.) Copy of so much of a letter from the Earl O'Neill and the Earl of Clancarty, Postmasters General in Ireland, to His Grace the Lord Lieutenant dated 10th November 1807--as relates to the extension of the buildings belonging to the General Post-Office in Dublin.
                                        1808 (220) IX.477, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]


                                        Session 1809, 19 January - 21 June, 12 volumes

                                        • Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, first series, vol. 12, index vol. 13, appendix, index vol. 14, appendix, index transcribed
                                          • List of Public Acts, vol. 14
                                          • Public General Acts, titles, acts, index
                                          • Public Local and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts
                                          • Private and Personal Acts, titles, short titles, acts [not printed]

                                          1809 (182) I.401, Post Roads, Ireland
                                          1809 (229) I.621, Post Roads, Ireland

                                          Select Committee on Report by T. Telford for facilitating and improving Communication between England and Ireland from Carlisle by N.W. of Scotland. Report, Appendix Atlas of Plans.
                                          Report from the committee, appointed to examine into Mr. Telford's report and survey, relative to the communication between England and Ireland, by the North-West of Scotland.
                                          1809 (269) III.609, 142 p. PDF [ProQuest]
                                          http://www.dippam.ac.uk/eppi/documents/8578

                                          Account of Incidental Expenses of Stamps in England and Scotland, 1807-08.
                                          Accounts, presented to the House of Commons, of the incidental expenses of stamps, in England and Scotland.
                                          1809 (153, 154) IX.53, 12 p. PDF [ProQuest]

                                          Letter to Coms. of Stamps on Premium paid for Remittance from Scotland, April 1809.
                                          Return to an order of the House of Commons dated 3d May 1809--for copy of a letter from George Harrison, Esq. to the Commissioners of Stamps respecting the premium paid for remittances from Scotland, and other points respecting the revenue under their management dated 25th April 1809.--Whitehall Treasury Chambers, 4th May 1809. (Stamps.)
                                          1809 (188) IX.65, 4 p. PDF [ProQuest]


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