When did books first become affordable to the general population?

When did books first become affordable to the general population?

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Gutenberg certainly had a great impact on the availability of books, but his printing press didn't help bring books into the hands of the poor. The price of books dropped from thousands of days worth of wages to hundreds, but this was still far too expensive for commoners.

By the 17th century many commoners in Europe could read, but they probably had nothing more to read than the Bible which I would guess was sponsored or at least heavily subsidized to make it affordable. The poor still couldn't afford to just go to a bookstore and buy any book they fancied.

Compare it with the 20th century and onward, when books can be bought with pocket change.

When did books first become affordable to the poor? This means that even low income families could afford, if they wanted, to own several books without significant financial sacrifices. In the early to mid 19th century there were already popular authors in Europe who wrote for the tastes of the poorer classes, so I would guess it was around that time, but can this guess be improved upon?

"Affordable to the poor" is a slippery concept.

However, books became much cheaper in the first half of the nineteenth century. Notable causes of this included steam-powered printing presses, mechanical typesetting, pulp paper mills, and the railway distribution network. These factors allowed the publication of cheap paperback books, which seem to have been invented by the Tauchnitz family in Germany, and followed up by publishers such as Routledge in the UK, aiming at the railway traveller market.

The Gutenberg-style press process initially output about 160 pages a day, which was revolutionary compared to about 12 you could expect out of a human copyist. This got polished to the point where by 1600 a press could output about 3,600 copies a day.

The next major advances came with the Industrial Revolution, starting with cast iron presses(in 1800) putting out about 480 pages an hour, then steam presses (in 1814) outputting more than a thousand pages an hour.

Each one of these advancements can be thought of as a similar % reduction in the price of printed works. With the new steam presses penny daily newspapers started to appear (vs. 6-cent).

However, we should backtrack a bit to the Bible and its importance to the history of printing. Most Protestant theology held that a person should read the Bible for themselves, rather than relying on a priesthood to interpret it for them. Inherent in this is the idea that a good Christian should be able to read the Bible, which means both literacy and owning a copy. This was more an ideal than a universal reality, but the Bible has always been the most-published book, and it was reality enough to actually impact the language in Protestant areas like Germany and England.

How Gutenberg Changed the World

He didn't invent printing. He didn't even invent movable type. He often ran into legal trouble and, when he died in 1468, he did so with little money or glory.

And yet today Johannes Gutenberg is one of the most celebrated inventors in history, chiefly because his chef d'oeuvre – the printing press – allowed his story, as well as the stories of thousands of others, to be set down on paper.

Gutenberg's printing press spread literature to the masses for the first time in an efficient, durable way, shoving Europe headlong into the original information age – the Renaissance.

Perfect machine

Gutenberg often gets credit as the father of printing, but the Chinese had him beat, in fact, by a full thousand years.

Around A.D. 600, the Chinese invented a printing technique using wooden blocks with multiple words to press or rub texts onto paper. A few hundred years later they also developed movable type – with letters rearranged for each new page – but, with over 10,000 common characters in their language, the process was cumbersome and didn't catch on. A similar situation arose in Korea, where metal typesetting was invented.

The English language, miniscule by comparison, was the perfect candidate for movable type.

At the start of the 15th century, every English text had to be laboriously copied by hand. This was much to the chagrin of a growing, literate middle class, who had limited access to the written word. Johannes Gutenberg, an oft-unsuccessful German businessman, recognized the moneymaking potential of mass produced books and set about experimenting with printing methods.

Using the typesetting technologies of Asia, a modified recipe of oil-based ink and a design built on the olive and grape screw-type presses used by farmers across Europe, Gutenberg developed his famous printing press. The most important, original contribution was Gutenberg's letter molds, which he concocted from a metal alloy and which were very durable.

The new system was simple, still tedious, but much more efficient than anything that had ever existed before.

Each page of text was made up of individual letters arranged in a type tray. The process could take a full day of work, but that type tray was reused over and over again to produce multiple copies of a page and then would be reset for other pages without wasting the metal letters, making mass production feasible for the first time.

Gutenberg's first large-scale printing – a set of 200 illustrated Latin Bibles – rolled off the presses in 1455. Every copy had been pre-sold before he'd even set the last page.

Books hit the streets

Word spread quickly from Germany across the continent about Gutenberg's remarkable machine. Though the man himself died poor in 1468, losing his savings in a legal battle against a business partner, his system became a commercial success. At least a half million books had entered circulation by 1500, it is estimated, ranging from classical Greek texts to Columbus' account of the New World.

Literacy levels, still low among the general population in Europe, crept upwards as the cost of books steadily dropped and book fairs became yearly occurrences in most major cities during the early years of the Renaissance.

The printing press was one of the key factors in the explosion of the Renaissance movement, historians say. Access to standard works of science, especially, stimulated and spread new ideas quicker than ever. When Martin Luther nailed his first Ninety-Five Theses to the door of a German church in 1517, launching the Protestant Reformation, he had multiple copies made to hand out elsewhere.

Gutenberg's medieval machine was so capable that it remained virtually unchanged until the 19th-century and the advent of steam-powered presses.

Cities and Their Appeal

One of the things that changed where people lived was the convenience of cities. In the 20th century, railroad and streetcars were a primary way to move long or short distances fairly cheaply. People were no longer dependent upon a horse for transportation, though even in 1850, only 15 percent of the US population lived in an urban setting. The rapid expansion of the west was also slowing. Children were leaving home and moving to the city where they would work a job rather than on the farm. [3]

In terms of senior care, the depletion of labor – children leaving home – meant that those that remained had to do more and there were fewer people around to care for mom and dad or grandma and grandpa. The family unit was shrinking and the distance between siblings grew. That is a shift that would appear later in the urban setting. Who would take care of mom or dad once the children have all left home? Medicare and Medicaid would not begin until 1965 and the idea of a nursing home as we know it today would begin in the 1970’s. Further, the definition of senior care would begin to become something we recognize today after 1987 when the Nursing Reform Act became law. Before 1965 old people without sufficient means were sent to poorhouses – a place of subpar living standards, abuse, and disease. Those blights in senior care would not be replaced until after the Great Depression – 1929-1939. Then the poorhouse would become a paler version of a board and care home today. [4] Those events were all things that would happen in the future and after a sufficient percentage of the rural population became urbanized.

In 1860 one fifth of the US Population lived in urban settings and the call of the city was growing stronger. By 1870 more than 25 percent of people were living in cities. By 1900, 40 percent of the US population lived in the cities. In 1920 the ratio would be nearly 50:50. Up to this time, rural areas were without major conveniences such as electricity. The standards of living were different between the city and the country. The Rural Electrification Administration was born in 1934. In 1920 50 percent of urban homes had electricity. That boon opened up the door for further conveniences such as electric washing machines, and small appliances. Life was getting easier in the city. [5]

By 1960 rural living was greatly diminished. Only 37 percent of the population lived rurally. Part of this shift was the expansion of cities and a new phenomenon called urban sprawl. The invention of the automobile would literally drive changes from rural living to urban living. People could now live in suburbs of a city, drive to work, and drive to the grocery store.

The shift in healthcare reflected this too. It was easier for a doctor to stay in one spot than to make house calls. People began going to the doctor rather than the doctor coming to them. By 1990, 75 percent of the US population lived in an urban location. In 1980 less than one percent of doctors made house calls.

As mentioned, after 1965 when Medicare became law, nursing homes increased and in 1987 they became better managed through changes to the legal system. The first hospice would not begin until 1974 and its presence today is in thanks to the Connecticut Hospice which served as a provider of end-of-life-care for people throughout the New Haven area. [6]

The shift from rural living to urban living was slow and it was fueled by innovation such as the discovery or the assembly line which opened up jobs for the masses. The development of the automobile and the gentrification of urban homes from lacking electricity to becoming the predecessor of modern living. Along the way, the seeds of today’s senior health care were planted, grown, and honed. That shift mirrors the change in the family unit and takes on the burden of an increasing lifespan thanks to advancements in medicine.

Development of the New Testament Canon

AD 51-125: The New Testament books are written, but during this same period other early Christian writings are produced--for example, the Didache (c. AD 70), 1Clement (c. 96), the Epistle of Barnabas (c. 100), and the 7 letters of Ignatius of Antioch (c. 110).

AD 140: Marcion, a businessman in Rome, teaches that there were two Gods: Yahweh, the cruel God of the OT, and Abba, the kind father of the NT. So Marcion eliminates the Old Testament as scriptures and, since he is anti-Semitic, keeps from the NT only 10 letters of Paul and 2/3 of Luke's gospel (he deletes references to Jesus' Jewishness). Marcion's "New Testament"--the first to be compiled--forces the mainstream Church to decide on a core canon: the four gospels and letters of Paul.

AD 200's: But the periphery of the canon is not yet determined. According to one list, compiled at Rome c. AD 200 (the Muratorian Canon), the NT consists of the 4 gospels Acts 13 letters of Paul (Hebrews is not included) 3 of the 7 General Epistles (1-2 John and Jude) and also the Apocalypse of Peter.

AD 367: The earliest extant list of the books of the NT, in exactly the number and order in which we presently have them, is written by Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, in his Easter letter of 367.

AD 382: Pope Damascus, lists canon of Scripture, both Old and New Testament books in their present number and order at the Council of Rome. This is exactly the same list as written by Athanasius, and the same list as we have today.

AD 300 - 400's: Councils of Hippo (393) and Carthage (397, 419), again define the same list of books as inspired. This canon was once again reaffirmed by Pope Innocent I in (405) and again by the Council of Carthage in (419)

AD 787: The second Council of Nicaea is held, which again confirms the list of inspired books.

AD 1442: At the Council of Florence, the entire Church recognizes the 27 books of the New Testament, though does not declare them unalterable.

AD 1536: In his translation of the Bible from Greek into German, Luther removes 4 NT books (Hebrews, James, Jude, and Revelations) from their normal order and places them at the end, stating that they are less than canonical.

AD 1546: At the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church reaffirms once and for all the full list of 27 New Testament books as traditionally accepted.

Resources Used

1. Newman, John Henry Cardinal, *Grammar of Assent,* Garden City, NY: Doubleday Image, 1955 (orig. 1870).

2. Toon, Peter, *Protestants and Catholics,* Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Books, 1983,

3. Brown, Robert McAfee, *The Spirit of Protestantism,* Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1961,

4. Lindsell, Harold, *The Battle for the Bible,* Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1976.

5. Janssen, Johannes, *History of the German People From the Close of the Middle Ages,* 16 vols., tr. A.M. Christie, St. Louis: B. Herder, 1910 (orig. 1891), vol.1, vol.14

6. Graham, Henry G., *Where We Got the Bible,* St.Louis: B. Herder, 3rd ed., 1939

7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE BIBLICAL CANON - adapted from materials of Professor Paul Hahn of the University of St. Thomas, Houston, Texas, 1995

Lisa Alekna
Written August 07, 1999
updated 08/09/2006

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Cars in the 1920s – The Early Automobile Industry

Although the automobile had been invented decades before the 1920s, they were so expensive few people could afford to have one.

Mass production, combined with innovations in design and sales, drove prices down and made them more affordable.

More People Own Cars

In 1918, only 1 in 13 families owned a car. By 1929, 4 out of 5 families had one. In the same time period, the number of cars on the road increased from 8 million to 23 million. In fact, the industry grew so fast, by 1925 over 10% of all people in the workforce had something to do with production, sales, service, or fueling of automobiles.

The Curved-Dash Olds and the Model T

In 1901, Ransom Olds marketed his curved-dash Oldsmobile to the middle class. Even at 40% of the cost of other cars on the market, the $650 price tag was more than the annual income of a middle class family. In 1908 Henry Ford announced plans for his Model T. He wanted it to be more affordable, but it still sold for $825.

Ford began thinking about ways to reduce costs. He came up with the idea of using interchangeable parts on an assembly line. Instead of a single worker producing a car from beginning to end, each worker would be trained to perform a single task in the process. By 1914 he had reduced the cost to $490, and by 1921 the Model T cost only $310.

Buying on Credit

At first, a buyer had to have cash to purchase a car. Banks were unwilling to lend money for something that was difficult to seize if the borrower stopped making payments. A car could be moved from place to place, unlike a house or land.

In 1919, General Motors and Dupont introduced the concept of buying a car on credit. But instead of getting financing through a bank, they formed the General Motors Acceptance Corporation (GMAC). By 1926, 75% of all car buyers were entering into credit purchase agreements.

Marketing the Automobile

The Model T had been built as an affordable, durable automobile. But with the new credit plans other car manufacturers were offering, consumers could purchase a more expensive model — with a few “extras” such as electric starters — without increasing their monthly payment by that much.

The industry began to use advertising to convince people that they needed the latest and greatest new car. “Planned obsolescence” created the impression that a new car was out-of-date within a year of its purchase. A redesigned fender or new paint color played into the growing consumerism of the era.

New advertising techniques associated a car brand with social status, sex appeal, and power. Reliability and affordability played a much smaller role in the whole package.

While Ford had built the Model T to stand the test of time, other companies tried to convince people to purchase a new car every few years. This practice created a brand new category of sales — the used car.

Ford’s Sales Decline

Between used car sales to lower income families, and attractive financing options on new cars for the middle class, Ford began to see a decline in sales. After resisting change for several months, Ford finally chose to shut down production from May to November 1927 to design a new car and re-tool his factories.

Ford sold 300,000 Model A’s before the first one appeared on the market. It quickly became the most popular car, but the unplanned shutdown had cost Ford plenty. With over 40 other companies making cars in 1929, competition began to increase.

The Car’s Influence on Society

The automobile changed the way people worked, conducted their business, and shopped for needs and wants. Doctors were among the first to buy cars, which made it easier for them to make housecalls. Police officers could now answer calls more quickly than on foot or horseback.

Cars also changed how people spent their leisure time. It gave us easy access to the world beyond our neighborhoods, our cities, and even our states. With a car, some extra income, and more leisure time, motor vacations became popular.

New Automobile Inspired Businesses

With more cars on the road, the landscape began to change as well. Roadside motels sprung up along newly paved streets. Before World War I, gas stations were little more than a pump set up in front of a shack. As the decade progressed, gas stations began to resemble neat little houses. They offered a wider variety of services as well, including engine repair, tire changes, and battery and headlight replacements.

Also before the war travelers had few places to purchase a meal on the road. In the 1920s thousand of cafes, BBQ joints, and ice cream stands sprung up.

Flashy neon signs, introduced in 1923, tried to entice the passing motorist into stopping at an establishment. Life would never be the same.

19 Shocking Dissociative Disorder Statistics

Many people are familiar with dissociative disorders as a multiple personality disorder. It occurs when a person has a literal disturbance in their identity. It is easy to notice this disorder because someone suffering from it will have a minimum of two distinct and separate personalities that are displayed at different times, yet still under personal control. These different personalities, which are called alters, may cause someone to have different mannerisms, styles of speech, and some may even be right-handed when the person is naturally left-handed.

Statistics on Dissociative Disorder

1. People living with DID are depressed or even suicidal and self-mutilation is common in this group.
2. About 1 in 3 people with dissociative disorder suffer from visual or auditory hallucinations.
3. DID occurs in up to 1% of the general population. It’s a serious mental illness that affects people across all income levels and all ethnic groups.
4. Some limited studies have shown that as many as 1 in 10 people in the general population may suffer at least from a short term episode of DID at least once in their life.
5. Women are 9x more likely to develop a dissociative disorder compared to men. There is an approximate prevalence of 3-6 per 1000 in women.
6. A diagnosis of DID can be had as long as there are 2 distinct alters on display. Some people have been known to develop up to 100 different alters.
7. 10. That’s the average amount of different personalities that someone with DID will have.
8. Research has shown that the average age for the initial development of alters is 5.9 years old.
9. DID can develop as a side effect of another mental illness, such as PTSD or Borderline Personality Disorder.
10. There are 5 main ways in which the dissociation of psychological processes changes the way a person experiences life: depersonalization, derealization, amnesia, identity confusion, and identity alteration.
11. The likelihood that a tendency to dissociate is inherited genetically is estimated to be 0.
12. Approximately 73% of individuals exposed to a traumatic incident will experience dissociative states during the incident or in the hours, days and weeks following the incident.
13. Most cases begin before the age of 35. Dissociation is unusual in the elderly.
14. Dissociative amnesia and fugue will usually resolve on its own without any treatment.
15. Dissociative Fugue has a prevalence rate of 0.2% in the general population, but this figure is higher when there are periods of extreme stress.
16. Some researchers have suggested that Depersonalization Disorder is the third most common psychological disorder following depression and anxiety.
17. A history of severe abuse is thought to be associated with DID.
18. People who may benefit either emotionally or legally from having DID sometimes pretend to have it.
19. Psychotherapy is the mainstay of treatment of DID and usually involves helping individuals with DID improve their relationship with others.

Dissociative Disorder Concurrences

There are even incidents of dissociative disorders where a person will require eyeglasses for one personality, but be able to see clearly with other personalities. It is very much a Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde type of situation. The personalities rarely interact with each other and a person may not even remember what happened when a different personality is on display. Most people aren’t even aware that they have this disorder when they seek out help. They just know that something is wrong because they have missing time.

The causes of dissociative identity disorder are not known. It can be an extremely distressing condition because people may keep running into others that know who they are, but they have no memory of them. Sometimes they may not even remember purchasing something in the past because it happened under another personality. New personalities can even surface and take over previous personalities that were once dominant.

As the statistics show, a dissociative disorder is an extremely complex medical condition that requires an individualistic approach. It is a unique condition of the human mind and one that can be incredibly stable, sometimes being present for years before someone finally decides to seek out help.

Prevention and Treatment

Although is may not be possible to prevent the development of dissociative disorders, it is helpful to seek out treatment as soon as possible should one make its presence known.

The complications of a dissociative disorder can be as complex as the disorder itself. It is not uncommon for self-injury to occur, but substance abuse can easily be substituted in for the desire to harm oneself. Some people with a dissociative disorder will repeatedly victimize others, which is why there are some people who may try to fake this disorder in order to get away with their crimes. Violence, attempted suicides, and other mental illnesses can all be a chronic problem.

Treatment is usually positive and responsive, but it can be difficult for some folks with a dissociative disorder to cope with the combining of their alters or the integration of their memories. Many of these splits tend to occur when abuse occurs so that the painful memory can be blocked out. Recovering the lost time or memories can then become a trigger for other mental illness breaks and that may even cause temporary setbacks on the way to recovery.

It is not uncommon for anxiety and panic disorders to be associated with dissociative disorders as well. The best thing to do is encourage someone to seek out proactive treatment if they’ve suffered a highly traumatic event in their life just recently, such as a death, a divorce, or a highly stressful incident like an armed robbery. The proactive therapy may just be enough to prevent dissociative disorders from forming.

The idea that these disorders are rare is a myth. They can be common, profound, and devastating. By knowing the facts about dissociative disorders, the myths can finally be dispelled so people will be able to seek out the treatment they need.

History of Polio

Few diseases frightened parents more in the early part of the 20 th century than polio did. Polio struck in the warm summer months, sweeping through towns in epidemics every few years. Though most people recovered quickly from polio, some suffered temporary or permanent paralysis and even death. Many polio survivors were disabled for life. They were a visible, painful reminder to society of the enormous toll this disease took on young lives.

Polio is the common name for poliomyelitis, which comes from the Greek words for grey and marrow, referring to the spinal cord, and the suffix –itis, meaning inflammation. Poliomyelitis, shortened, became polio. For a time, polio was called infantile paralysis, though it did not affect only the young.

Cause of Polio

Polio is caused by one of three types of poliovirus (which are members of the Enterovirus genus). These viruses spread through contact between people, by nasal and oral secretions, and by contact with contaminated feces. Poliovirus enters the body through the mouth, multiplying along the way to the digestive tract, where it further multiplies. In about 98% of cases, polio is a mild illness, with no symptoms or with viral-like symptoms. In paralytic polio, the virus leaves the digestive tract, enters the bloodstream, and then attacks nerve cells. Fewer than 1%-2% of people who contract polio become paralyzed. In severe cases, the throat and chest may be paralyzed. Death may result if the patient does not receive artificial breathing support.

History of Polio

It is likely that polio has plagued humans for thousands of years. An Egyptian carving from around 1400 BCE depicts a young man with a leg deformity similar to one caused by polio. Polio circulated in human populations at low levels and appeared to be a relatively uncommon disease for most of the 1800s.

Polio reached epidemic proportions in the early 1900s in countries with relatively high standards of living, at a time when other diseases such as diphtheria, typhoid, and tuberculosis were declining. Indeed, many scientists think that advances in hygiene paradoxically led to an increased incidence of polio. The theory is that in the past, infants were exposed to polio, mainly through contaminated water supplies, at a very young age. Infants’ immune systems, aided by maternal antibodies still circulating in their blood, could quickly defeat poliovirus and then develop lasting immunity to it. However, better sanitary conditions meant that exposure to polio was delayed until later in life, on average, when a child had lost maternal protection and was also more vulnerable to the most severe form of the disease.

Because of widespread vaccination, polio was eliminated from the Western Hemisphere in 1994. In 2016, it continues to circulate in just Afghanistan and Pakistan, with occasional spread to neighboring countries. Vigorous vaccination programs are being conducted to eliminate these last pockets. Polio vaccination is still recommended worldwide because of the risk of imported cases.

In the United States, children are recommended to receive the inactivated polio vaccine at 2 months and 4 months of age, and then twice more before entering elementary school.


In 1905, Swedish physician Ivar Wickman suggested that that polio was a contagious disease that could be spread from person to person.

A huge fundraising effort began in 1938 when entertainer Eddie Cantor suggested on the radio that people send dimes to the White House to help fight polio.

When did books first become affordable to the general population? - History

A.A.'s Conference-approved books are a wonderful resource to learn about how A.A. started, how the Steps and Traditions evolved, and how the A.A. fellowship grew and spread overseas.


On April 10, 1939, 4,650 copies of the Big Book, Alcoholics Anonymous, became available for distribution. Cornwall Press would deliver copies to Works Publishing company, with an office on William Street in Newark, New Jersey. The grand bill for the print run was $1,783.00!

Copies were also delivered directly to &ldquofriends&rdquo of the Fellowship, including associates of John D. Rockefeller who aided significantly in the publishing venture.

The Conference that Started it All

Five years later, the proof of concept was initialized through Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, and Herbert Simon’s, Logic Theorist. The Logic Theorist was a program designed to mimic the problem solving skills of a human and was funded by Research and Development (RAND) Corporation. It’s considered by many to be the first artificial intelligence program and was presented at the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence (DSRPAI) hosted by John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky in 1956. In this historic conference, McCarthy, imagining a great collaborative effort, brought together top researchers from various fields for an open ended discussion on artificial intelligence, the term which he coined at the very event. Sadly, the conference fell short of McCarthy’s expectations people came and went as they pleased, and there was failure to agree on standard methods for the field. Despite this, everyone whole-heartedly aligned with the sentiment that AI was achievable. The significance of this event cannot be undermined as it catalyzed the next twenty years of AI research.

ISS Historical Timeline

Reagan directs NASA to build the ISS

January 25, 1984

President Ronald Reagan's State of the Union Address directs NASA to build an international space station within the next 10 years.

First ISS Segment Launches

November 20, 1998

The first segment of the ISS launches: a Russian proton rocket named Zarya ("sunrise").

First U.S.-built component launches

December 4, 1998

Unity, the first U.S.-built component of the International Space Station launches—the first Space Shuttle mission dedicated to assembly of the station.

First Crew to Reside on Station

November 2, 2000

Astronaut Bill Shepherd and cosmonauts Yuri Gidzenko and Sergei Krikalev become the first crew to reside onboard the station, staying several months.

U.S. Lab Module Added

February 7, 2001

Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory module, becomes part of the station. Destiny continues to be the primary research laboratory for U.S. payloads.

U.S. Lab Module Recognized as Newest U.S. National Laboratory

Congress designates the U.S. portion of the ISS as the nation's newest national laboratory to maximize its use for other U.S. government agencies and for academic and private institutions.

European Lab Joins the ISS

February 7, 2008

The European Space Agency’s Columbus Laboratory becomes part of the station.

Japanese Lab Joins the ISS

March 11, 2008

The first Japanese Kibo laboratory module becomes part of the station.

ISS 10-Year Anniversary

November 2, 2010

The ISS celebrates its 10-year anniversary of continuous human occupation. Since Expedition 1 in the fall of 2000, 202 people had visited the station.

NASA Issues Cooperative Agreement

February 14, 2011

NASA issues a cooperative agreement notice for a management partner.

NASA Selects the ISS National Lab

July 13, 2011

NASA selects the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space to manage the ISS National Lab.

The First ISS National Lab Research Flight

Proteins can be grown as crystals in space with nearly perfect three-dimensional structures useful for the development of new drugs. The ISS National Lab's protein crystal growth (PCG) series of flights began in 2013, allowing researchers to utilize the unique environment of the ISS.