Day Fifty Two Second Hundred June 20, 2009 - History

Day Fifty Two Second Hundred June 20, 2009 - History

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The Pesident gave his weekly address to the American people. He spoke about consumer credit.

Prepared Remarks of President Barack Obama Weekly Address June 20, 2009

As we continue to recover from an historic economic crisis, it is clear to everyone that one of its major causes was a breakdown in oversight that led to widespread abuses in the financial system. An epidemic of irresponsibility took hold from Wall Street to Washington to Main Street. And the consequences have been disastrous. Millions of Americans have seen their life savings erode; families have been devastated by job losses; businesses large and small have closed their doors.

In response, this week, my administration proposed a set of major reforms to the rules that govern our financial system; to attack the causes of this crisis and to prevent future crises from taking place; to ensure that our markets can work fairly and freely for businesses and consumers alike.

We are going to promote markets that work for those who play by the rules. We’re going to stand up for a system in which fair dealing and honest competition are the only way to win. We’re going to level the playing field for consumers. And we’re going to have the kinds of rules that encourage innovations that make our economy stronger – not those that allow insiders to exploit its weaknesses for their own gain.

And one of the most important proposals is a new oversight agency called the Consumer Financial Protection Agency. It’s charged with just one job: looking out for the interests of ordinary Americans in the financial system. This is essential, for this crisis may have started on Wall Street. But its impacts have been felt by ordinary Americans who rely on credit cards, home loans, and other financial instruments.

It is true that this crisis was caused in part by Americans who took on too much debt and took out loans they simply could not afford. But there are also millions of Americans who signed contracts they did not always understand offered by lenders who did not always tell the truth. Today, folks signing up for a mortgage, student loan, or credit card face a bewildering array of incomprehensible options. Companies compete not by offering better products, but more complicated ones – with more fine print and hidden terms. It’s no coincidence that the lack of strong consumer protections led to abuses against consumers; the lack of rules to stop deceptive lending practices led to abuses against borrowers.

This new agency will have the responsibility to change that. It will have the power to set tough new rules so that companies compete by offering innovative products that consumers actually want – and actually understand. Those ridiculous contracts – pages of fine print that no one can figure out – will be a thing of the past. You’ll be able to compare products – with descriptions in plain language – to see what is best for you. The most unfair practices will be banned. The rules will be enforced.

Some argue that these changes – and the many others we’ve called for – go too far. And I welcome a debate about how we can make sure our regulations work for businesses and consumers. But what I will not accept – what I will vigorously oppose – are those who do not argue in good faith. Those who would defend the status quo at any cost. Those who put their narrow interests ahead of the interests of ordinary Americans. We’ve already begun to see special interests mobilizing against change.

That’s not surprising. That’s Washington.

For these are interests that have benefited from a system which allowed ordinary Americans to be exploited. These interests argue against reform even as millions of people are facing the consequences of this crisis in their own lives. These interests defend business-as-usual even though we know that it was business-as-usual that allowed this crisis to take place.

Well, the American people did not send me to Washington to give in to the special interests; the American people sent me to Washington to stand up for their interests. And while I’m not spoiling for a fight, I’m ready for one. The most important thing we can do to put this era of irresponsibility in the past is to take responsibility now. That is why my administration will accept no less than real and lasting change to the way business is done – on Wall Street and in Washington. We will do what is necessary to end this crisis – and we will do what it takes to prevent this kind of crisis from ever happening again.

Thank you.

Evolution Of The Human Appendix: A Biological 'Remnant' No More

The lowly appendix, long-regarded as a useless evolutionary artifact, won newfound respect two years ago when researchers at Duke University Medical Center proposed that it actually serves a critical function. The appendix, they said, is a safe haven where good bacteria could hang out until they were needed to repopulate the gut after a nasty case of diarrhea, for example.

Now, some of those same researchers are back, reporting on the first-ever study of the appendix through the ages. Writing in the Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Duke scientists and collaborators from the University of Arizona and Arizona State University conclude that Charles Darwin was wrong: The appendix is a whole lot more than an evolutionary remnant. Not only does it appear in nature much more frequently than previously acknowledged, but it has been around much longer than anyone had suspected.

"Maybe it's time to correct the textbooks," says William Parker, Ph.D., assistant professor of surgical sciences at Duke and the senior author of the study. "Many biology texts today still refer to the appendix as a 'vestigial organ.'"

Using a modern approach to evolutionary biology called cladistics, which utilizes genetic information in combination with a variety of other data to evaluate biological relationships that emerge over the ages, Parker and colleagues found that the appendix has evolved at least twice, once among Australian marsupials and another time among rats, lemmings and other rodents, selected primates and humans. "We also figure that the appendix has been around for at least 80 million years, much longer than we would estimate if Darwin's ideas about the appendix were correct."

Darwin theorized that the appendix in humans and other primates was the evolutionary remains of a larger structure, called a cecum, which was used by now- extinct ancestors for digesting food. The latest study demonstrates two major problems with that idea. First, several living species, including certain lemurs, several rodents and a type of flying squirrel, still have an appendix attached to a large cecum which is used in digestion. Second, Parker says the appendix is actually quite widespread in nature. "For example, when species are divided into groups called 'families', we find that more than 70 percent of all primate and rodent groups contain species with an appendix." Darwin had thought that appendices appeared in only a small handful of animals.

"Darwin simply didn't have access to the information we have," explains Parker. "If Darwin had been aware of the species that have an appendix attached to a large cecum, and if he had known about the widespread nature of the appendix, he probably would not have thought of the appendix as a vestige of evolution."

He also was not aware that appendicitis, or inflammation of the appendix, is not due to a faulty appendix, but rather due to cultural changes associated with industrialized society and improved sanitation. "Those changes left our immune systems with too little work and too much time their hands &ndash a recipe for trouble," says Parker.

That notion wasn't proposed until the early 1900's, and "we didn't really have a good understanding of that principle until the mid 1980's," Parker said. "Even more importantly, Darwin had no way of knowing that the function of the appendix could be rendered obsolete by cultural changes that included widespread use of sewer systems and clean drinking water."

Parker says now that we understand the normal function of the appendix, a critical question to ask is whether we can do anything to prevent appendicitis. He thinks the answer may lie in devising ways to challenge our immune systems today in much the same manner that they were challenged back in the Stone Age. "If modern medicine could figure out a way to do that, we would see far fewer cases of allergies, autoimmune disease, and appendicitis."

Colleagues who contributed to the study include lead author Heather Smith, of the Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine Rebecca Fisher, of Arizona State University and Mary Lou Everett, Anitra Thomas and R. Randal Bollinger from the Department of Surgery at Duke.

Historical Events on April 9

    Byzantine Emperor Basiliscus issues a circular letter (Enkyklikon) to the bishops of his empire, supporting the Monophysite christological position.
    Constantine ends his reign as Catholic Pope Louis the Pious, King of the Franks, barely survives when wooden gallery collapses in Aachen, prompts him to later name his succession Battle of Liegnitz - Mongol armies defeat Poles & Germans Battle of Näfels Glarius Swiss defeat Habsburg (Austrian) army Henry V is crowned King of England. Christopher of Bavaria is appointed King of Denmark (1440-48) Milan and Venice sign peace of Lodi Breisach land guardian Peter von Hagenbach throws out Walloon and Italians

Murder of Interest

1483 Edward V (aged 12) succeeds his father Edward IV as king of England. He is never crowned, and disappears presumed murdered, after incarceration in the Tower of London with his younger brother Richard (the "Princes in the Tower")

Event of Interest

1538 Danish king Christian III enters Schmalkaldische Union

    Marcello Cervini elected Pope Marcellus II Spain & Netherlands sign 12 Year Resistant Pact Spain & Netherlands 12 Year Resistant Pact ends 1st public art exhibition at the Palais-Royale in Paris

Event of Interest

1768 John Hancock refuses to allow two British customs agents to go below deck of his ship, considered by some to be the first act of physical resistance to British authority in the colonies

Event of Interest

1772 Philosopher and mathematician Jean-Baptiste Le Rond d'Alembert becomes permanent secretary of the French Academy of Sciences

    Tippu Sahib drives out British from Bednore, India Great Britain ratifies the Treaty of Paris, signed September 3, 1783, ending the Revolutionary War Mayor Wolters offers French King Louis Napoleon townhall as a palace Elias Canneman (L) resigns as minister of Finance of the Netherlands African Methodist Episcopal Church organizes (Philadelphia) Danzig (Gdańsk) dike break flood kills 1,200 1st US tax-supported public library in Peterborough, New Hampshire UK National Gallery re-opens in its new dedicated building in Trafalgar Square, London Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville uses his phonautograph to make a 10-second recording of "Au Clair de la Lune" Battle of Pleasant Hill, Louisiana, Confederate assault repulsed by Union side with high cost of estimated 3,100 causalities Union surgeon Mary Edwards Walker is captured by Confederate troops and arrested as a spy during US Civil War

Event of Interest

1865 Confederate General Robert E. Lee and 26,765 troops surrender at Appomattox Court House to US Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant ending the Civil War in North Virginia

M4 Sherman

The Sherman had many failings as a battle tank. Its gasoline engine (variously 425 to 500 horsepower) was prone to ‘‘brewing up’’ and burning its five-man crew to death. Consequently, diesels were used in M4A2s and A6s. It was tall and top-heavy, making it a better target than the panzers or T-34, and it was outgunned by enemy tanks. However, it also had significant advantages, not least of which was availability. More than forty thousand Shermans were built from 1941 to 1946, meeting the needs of not only the U.S. Army but partly those of the British and Soviets as well. The Sherman, weighing between thirty-three and thirty-five tons, had armor 1.5 to 2.5 inches thick, easily defeated by many German weapons. In fact, Wehrmacht gunners described Shermans as ‘‘Ronsons’’ for the ease with which they could be made to burn. Though the M4’s 75 mm gun was adequate for originally envisioned purposes, the requirement set for a ten-thousand-round tube life dictated a low muzzle velocity, leading to poor penetration, and it is doubtful that many Shermans fired much over five hundred rounds. With greater experience, the British recognized the armament problem and upgraded to a seventeen-pounder (76 mm) in the Firefly version.

Shermans lent themselves to other uses as well, including the chassis and hull for the M10 tank destroyer and a variety of engineering vehicles. Conventional Shermans were fitted with the duplex drive kit and inflatable ‘‘skirts’’ for amphibious operations but proved largely unworkable on 6 June. “Funny” devices were added for the D-Day campaign, especially bulldozer blades and field-designed plows capable of penetrating the exceptionally thick foliage of Normandy’s bocage. The latter were developed by Sgt. Curtis Culin of the Second Armored Division, using scrap steel from destroyed German obstacles.

Important Events From This day in History April 14th

Celebrating Birthdays Today
John Gielgud
Born: Arthur John Gielgud 14th April 1904 South Kensington, London, England, UK
Died: May 21st 2000 Wotton Underwood, Buckinghamshire, England, UK
Known For : Sir Arthur John Gielgud was an English actor, director and producer, best known for his work as a Shakespearean actor on stage and screen which was the first love of his life. He played to full houses in both Broadway and the West End and to understand how great his talent was, when he did appear on the big screen his movies included Julius Caesar, Richard III, Arthur, Murder on the Orient Express, Providence, The Charge of the Light Brigade and The Elephant Man were critically acclaimed. He is one of the few actors ever to have won an Academy Award ( Winner for Best Supporting Actor, for Arthur ), Emmy ( Winner for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Movie, for Summer's Lease), Grammy ( Multiple Wins ) , and Tony Award ( Multiple Wins. )

Significant Dates

1775 - Benjamin Franklin appointed first Postmaster General by the Continental Congress
1847 - U.S. postage stamps issued
1855 - Prepayment of postage required
1860 - Pony Express began
1863 - Free city delivery began
1873 - U.S. postal cards issued
1874 - General Postal Union (now Universal Postal Union) established
1893 - First commemorative stamps issued
1896 - Rural free delivery began
1913 - Parcel Post® began
1918 - Scheduled airmail service began
1950 - Residential deliveries reduced to one a day
1957 - Citizens' Stamp Advisory Committee established
1963 - ZIP Code inaugurated
1970 - Express Mail® began experimentally
1971 - United States Postal Service® began operations
1971 - Labor contract negotiated through collective bargaining, a federal government "first"
1974 - Self-adhesive stamps tested
1982 - Last year Postal Service&trade accepted public service subsidy
1983 - ZIP+4® Code began
1992 - Self-adhesive stamps introduced nationwide
1993 - National Postal Museum opened
1994 - Postal Service launched public Internet site
1998 - U.S. semipostal stamp issued
2004 - Priority Mail® flat-rate box introduced
2006 - Postal Accountability and Enhancement Act signed
2007 - &ldquoForever&rdquo stamp issued
2008 - Competitive pricing for expedited mail began
2009 - Free iPhone app offered
2011 - Every Door Direct Mail® introduced
2013 - Sunday package delivery expanded
2014 - Informed Delivery® tested
2017 - Informed Delivery available nationwide

500 Years of GDP: A Tale of Two Countries

Last year (2014), China overtook the United States in gross domestic product adjusted for purchasing power (GDP-PPP, see point 4 for explanation), according to both the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (Note 1). It may come as a surprise, but this is really a matter of China simply reasserting its position as the world's largest economy, which it had lost around 1890 to the United States. This is based on estimates developed by the late legendary economist Angus Maddison of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Over the 515 years from 1500 to 2015, the available data seems to suggest that the largest economy in the world almost always been either China or the United States. The one exception indicated was in 1700, when India had the highest GDP (for most years there is only incomplete data). This article provides highlights of GDP PPP data in US$2015 (Note 2), beginning less than a decade after Columbus "discovered America" and less than 70 years after the last great pre-Columbian Chinese sailing expedition, led by Admiral Zheng He. Maddison's data is used and adjusted to 2015$ through 1970, with IMF data used for 1980 to 2015.

Further, in the earlier years, virtually all nations had very low GDPs per capita. This was to begin changing with the industrial revolution. Thus, the early data can be characterized as being strongly related to population, because there was much less difference in GDP per capita based on level of development.

1500: In 1500, China was the largest economy in the world, followed closely by India, both with estimated GDP's of approximately $100 billion. France was a distant third at approximately 18 billion, followed closely by Italy and Germany. What is now the United Kingdom ranked 10th, at barely one quarter the output of France (Figure 1).

1700: This was the only reported year between 1500 and 2015 that China or the United States did not lead the world. India had the strongest economy in 1700, closely followed by China. Throughout the entire period to the middle of the 20th century, China's economy was larger than India's by a relatively small margin. At the same time &ldquothe great powers&rdquo of the West were still well behind China and India, with France retaining third-place with a GDP less than one fourth that of China and 1/6 that of India. The United Kingdom was yet to break into the top five, ranking eighth (Figure 2).

1820: By 1820, the next year for which full data is available, China resumed its lead and by a larger margin. India was second, slightly more than one half that of China. The United Kingdom finally appears, in third-place with a GDP one sixth that of China and only slightly ahead of France (Figure 3). The available data shows China to have retained the top position through 1870.

1890: By 1890, the United States had emerged as the world's largest economy, opening up an approximately five percent lead over China. India ranked third, followed by the United Kingdom and Japan (Figure 4).

1930: By 1930, the ascendancy of the United States was clear. China, then reeling from social disorder and civil strife, still remained the second largest economy, but trailed the United States by approximately two thirds. There was little difference between China and the next three largest economies, Germany, the United Kingdom and India (Figure 5).

1980: Half a century later, in 1980, the United States retained a similar lead, but now over second-ranked Japan. Germany was a close third, followed by Italy and France. India ranked ninth, approximately 30 percent ahead of 10th ranked China. Then the Deng Xiaoping era was getting underway (Figure 6), leading to China&rsquos resurgence back towards the top.

2010: China's ascendancy was obvious by 2010, reaching within 20 percent of the United States, which remained number one. This had been a dramatic reversal, since China's GDP had been little more than one tenth that of the United States only 30 years earlier (1980). India was also restored to a leadership position, ranking third. Japan was fourth and Germany was fifth (Figure 7).

2015: The 2015 IMF projections show China to have recovered first-place after at least a 125 year hiatus. The United States was second, approximately four percent behind China. India, Japan and Germany remained in third, fourth and fifth place (Figure 8). The BRIIC developing nations are in the top 10, with Russia, Brazil and Indonesia ranking sixth through eighth (in addition to China and India in first and third place). Two other powers of Europe round out the top 10, the United Kingdom and France.


The impact of China's difficult 19th century is indicated by a 10% GDP decline, despite an increasing population. It seems likely that this is at least partially attributable to the Opium Wars, treaty ports and related extraterritorial jurisdiction by external powers. China's GDP in 1900 had fallen 10 percent from its 1820 level.

It is notable that through much of their empire-colonial relationship between the United Kingdom and India, the colony had the larger GDP. This was the case from 1820 through 1900. This is principally due to the larger population of India. For example, in 1870, India's GDP was one-third larger than that of the United Kingdom. In the same year, however, the UK GDP per capita was six times that of India.

Similarly, while China's GDP is larger than that of the United States in GDP, its GDP per capita is about one-fourth that of the US.


GDP projections produced for 2050, by PWC (Price Waterhouse Coopers) indicate that even more significant changes could be ahead. PWC expects China to have GDP of $61 trillion (US$2014). India is projected to be restored to its previous second place, at $42 trillion, just ahead of the United States ($41 trillion). BRIICs members Indonesia and Brazil would be 4th and 5th, while BRIICs Russia would be 8th. Mexico and Japan would follow Brazil, with Nigeria and Germany rounding out the top ten.

If PWC is right, the dominance of China and the United States might be supplanted by the historically dominant duo of China and India. Of course, no one knows for sure. Forecasting economics is even harder than forecasting population.

Note: All data is converted into 2015 international dollars using the US GDP implicit price deflator. US

dollars are the basis of international dollars.

Photo: Zheng He Park, Nanjing (by author)

Wendell Cox is Chair, Housing Affordability and Municipal Policy for the Frontier Centre for Public Policy (Canada), is a Senior Fellow of the Center for Opportunity Urbanism (US), a member of the Board of Advisors of the Center for Demographics and Policy at Chapman University (California) and principal of Demographia, an international public policy and demographics firm.

He is co-author of the "Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey" and author of "Demographia World Urban Areas" and "War on the Dream: How Anti-Sprawl Policy Threatens the Quality of Life." He was appointed to three terms on the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission, where he served with the leading city and county leadership as the only non-elected member. He served as a visiting professor at the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, a national university in Paris.

Latest Updates

The blame has been spread wide — to arcane credit-default swaps, to lax enforcement of weak regulations, to poorly understood risks and badly managed financial institutions.

But with his arrest on Dec. 11, Mr. Madoff, a senior statesman in the private corridors of Wall Street who was respected for his vision and trusted by tens of thousands of customers, put a human face on those abstractions.

Mr. Madoff’s luxurious lifestyle, including a penthouse, yachts and French villa, all quickly became fuel for public outrage.

Every move in the case was closely watched, including his confession to his sons, Andrew and Mark, who were in his business his guilty plea to 11 counts of various financial crimes in March and his wife’s legal efforts to save some family assets from a sweeping government forfeiture.

The fury increased in January with Congressional testimony from a whistle-blower who had repeatedly alerted the Securities and Exchange Commission about his suspicion that Mr. Madoff was operating a gigantic fraud. An internal investigation is now under way at the S.E.C. to determine why the agency did not detect Mr. Madoff’s scheme and shut it down years ago.

The S.E.C. and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation, a government-chartered program to compensate customers of failed brokerage firms, were criticized repeatedly in the courtroom statements by the victims on Monday, and at a rally of victims held near the courthouse afterward.

The litigation already filed in and around the Madoff case will help shape how regulators, the courts and SIPC respond to large-scale Ponzi scheme losses in the future. How the losses of victims will be addressed is just one of many open questions.

The criminal investigation is continuing, as prosecutors try to determine who else bears responsibility for the crime. So far, only Mr. Madoff’s accountant has been arrested on criminal charges, but securities regulators have filed civil suits against several of his long-term investors, accusing them of knowingly steering other investors into the fraud scheme for their own gain.

And the bankruptcy trustee has sued more than a half-dozen hedge funds and large investors, seeking to recover more than $10 billion withdrawn from the fraud in its final months and years. It is uncertain how much money he will be able to recover to share among the victims and how long that effort will take.

And the sentence itself is likely to leave a mark as well, according to legal experts on white-collar crime.

In remarks before announcing his decision, Judge Chin acknowledged that any sentence beyond a dozen years or so would be largely symbolic for Mr. Madoff, who is 71 and has a life expectancy of about 13 years.

But “symbolism is important for at least three reasons,” he said, citing the need for retribution, deterrence and a measure of justice for the victims.

Judge Chin said he did not agree with the suggestion by Ira Lee Sorkin, Mr. Madoff’s lead lawyer, that victims were seeking “mob vengeance” through a maximum sentence.

“They are placing their trust in the system of justice,” he said, adding that he hoped the sentence he imposed would “in some small way” help the victims to heal.

Several former prosecutors called Judge Chin’s decision somewhat surprising but appropriate.

“The judge sent a powerful deterrent message and an ominous signal to possible co-conspirators,” said George Jackson III, a lawyer with Bryan Cave and a former federal prosecutor in Chicago.

Richard L. Scheff, a lawyer with Montgomery, McCracken, Walker & Rhoads and a former assistant secretary for law enforcement for the Treasury Department, said the magnitude of the sentence “demonstrates real concern for the harm caused by Madoff to so many victims.”

He added, “Am I surprised? Yes, to a degree — but I strongly suspected that the sentence would be tantamount to a life sentence.”

To Robert S. Wolf, with the law firm Gersten Savage, the sentence “sent a clear and resounding message that Judge Chin felt that Madoff had not come clean and told all about the enormity of his criminal activity and others who participated.”

But James A. Cohen, an associate professor of law at Fordham, said he was troubled by the sentence. “I don’t think symbolism has a very important part in sentencing,” he said. “I certainly agree that a life sentence was appropriate, but this struck me as pandering to the crowd.”

The victims who spoke in the courtroom were unanimous in their demand for a maximum sentence, saying that Mr. Madoff had forfeited his right to live in society. They pointed to the extent of the crime: a fraud that ensnared millionaires, private foundations, a Nobel Prize laureate and hundreds of small investors who lost their life savings to an investment guru they had trusted completely.

Burt Ross, who lost $5 million in the fraud, cited Dante’s “The Divine Comedy,” in which the poet defined fraud as “the worst of sin” and expressed the hope that, when Mr. Madoff dies — “virtually unmourned” — he would find himself in the lowest circle of hell.

Prosecutors said Mr. Madoff deserved the maximum term for carrying out one of the biggest investment frauds in Wall Street history. Mr. Madoff’s lawyers said he should receive only 12 years.

After Mr. Madoff’s victims finished speaking, his lawyer, Mr. Sorkin, said the government’s request for a 150-year sentence bordered on absurd. He called Mr. Madoff a “deeply flawed individual,” but a human being nonetheless. “Vengeance is not the goal of punishment,” Mr. Sorkin said.

Even with a lesser term, Mr. Sorkin added, Mr. Madoff expects to “live out his years in prison.”

THURS: No Mask Mandate For Vaccinated Youth, Group Sues Santa Fe Mayor Over Obelisk, + More

New Mexico Governor Lifts Mask Mandate For Vaccinated Youth - By Susan Montoya Bryan, Associated Press

New Mexico was under pressure Thursday to get thousands of people vaccinated to meet a deadline set by Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham.

The Democratic governor wanted to reopen the state by July 1, as long as 60% of residents 16 and older were fully vaccinated at least two weeks ahead of that date.

D-Day Timeline: The Invasion of Normandy

A D-Day timeline cannot only take into account the events of June 6, 1944. The wider events of the war must be included to give context to the largest military operations of the Allied war effort. This article only touches on the events surrounding the two months before and after the Invasion of Normandy and does not take into account the massive planning efforts that extended back multiple months.

The military chronology of World War II during May and June 1944 includes the following events:

8 May. British forces repulse a Japanese attack in the Manipur Hills of eastern India.

9 May. Sevastopol is recaptured by the Red Army.

10 May. Chinese troops begin an offensive to free the Burma Road, crossing the Salween River on a hundred-mile front.

11 May. Allied forces open an Italian offensive with air and artillery bombardment of the Gustav Line.

13 May. American and British Empire forces attack Japanese positions at Mogaung and Myitkyina in Burma.

18 May. The U.S. Fifth Army captures German strongholds at Cassino and the seaport of Formia in Italy. Field Marshal Gerd von Runstedt is appointed supreme commander of German forces in western Europe.

19 May. U.S. and Free French troops penetrate the Gustav Line while Gaeta is seized by Allied forces as German troops withdraw toward Rome.

20 May. In his first broadcast of ‘‘operational orders,’’ Gen. Dwight Eisenhower asks resistance groups in Occupied Europe for information on German troop movements.

25 May. Allied forces in Italy link the Anzio beachhead with the main front lines. Over western Europe, 3,700 Allied bombers and hundreds of fighters attack rail and air targets in France and Belgium.

27 May. U.S. Army troops seize Biak Island off the northwest coast of New Guinea.

2 June. U.S. Army Air Forces bombers fly the first shuttle mission to Russia, bombing Romanian targets en route.

4 June. The U.S. Fifth Army captures Rome. Eisenhower cancels D-Day because of poor weather in the English Channel.

5 June. Eisenhower gives approval for Neptune-Overlord: ‘‘OK, let’s go.’’

6 June. The invasion of Normandy begins at 0630. In Burma, Nationalist Chinese forces cut all Japanese-controlled sections of the Burma Road.

7 June. Bayeux becomes the first notable French city liberated by Allied armies in Normandy.

9 June. Generals George C. Marshall and Henry H. Arnold arrive in London with Adm. Ernest J. King for joint conferences with their British counterparts. In Italy, Allied forces capture Tuscania.

11 June. The Soviets launch an offensive against German and Finnish forces on the Karelian Isthmus. The British Eighth Army captures Avezzano, fifty miles east of Rome.

13 June. Allied forces in Normandy capture Carentan.

14 June. Allied and German tanks clash south of Bayeux. In the Pacific, U.S. Marines and Army troops invade Saipan in the Mariana Islands.

15 June. The first V-1 ‘‘buzz bomb’’ attack is launched against England from sites in the Pas de Calais. China-based B-29s fly their first mission against Japan.

16 June. The U.S. First Army captures St. Sau veur le Vicomte in a drive across the Cherbourg Peninsula. Free French forces land on the isle of Elba in the Mediterranean.

17 June. American forces cut off the Cotentin Peninsula, trapping the German garrison in the Cherbourg area. Admiral William F. Halsey takes command of the Third Fleet in the Pacific.

19 June. Elba is declared secure by Free French forces. A major sea-air battle is fought in conjunction with the Saipan invasion, resulting in a major U.S. Navy victory over the Japanese fleet.

21 June. Japanese forces capture Hunan in Changsha Province.

22 June. The GI Bill of Rights is enacted in Washington, D.C., ensuring postwar veterans benefits.

23 June. The Soviet summer offensive begins along a three-hundred-mile front, squeezing German forces between the Allies on both fronts.

24 June. American troops enter Cherbourg against fierce opposition.

26 June. Russian forces recapture Vitebsk and Zhlobin from German occupiers.

27 June. Cherbourg is declared fully in Allied hands.

28 June. The Japanese launch an offensive from Canton down the Hankow railway.

29 June. Generals Marshall and Arnold, and Admiral King, warn the American public against undue optimism over Allied success in Normandy.

30 June. The U.S. government breaks diplomatic relations with Helsinki, charging that Finland was allied with Germany—a situation that had existed since 1941.

You can also buy the book by clicking on the buttons to the left.

Watch the video: 239 Ο Αδάμ και η Εύα έξω από τον Παράδεισο Μεταγλώττιση


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