Letter From Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy Moscow, undated.(Received November 5th) - History

Letter From Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy Moscow, undated.(Received November 5th) - History


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Letter From Chairman Khrushchev to President KennedyMoscow, undated.(Received November 5th)

DEAR MR. PRESIDENT, I have just received information from Mr. V. Kuznetsov, our representative at the negotiations in New York for liquidation of the tense situation around Cuba, that Mr. Stevenson handed him a list of weapons which your side calls offensive. I have studied the list and, I must confess, the approach of the American side to this matter has seriously worried me. In such a move, I will say frankly, I see a wish to complicate the situation, because it is impossible indeed to place into the category of "offensive" weapons such types of weapons which have always been referred to as defensive weapons even by a man uneducated militarily--by a common soldier, not to say of an officer.
It is hard for us to understand what aim is being pursued by the introduction of that list, by setting forth such a demand--in any case it must be some other aim, but not a desire for a speediest clearing of the atmosphere. And it is being done at a moment when we have already agreed with you on the main questions and when we on our part have already fulfilled what we agreed upon--have dismantled rocket weapons, are loading them now on ships and these weapons will be soon shipped from Cuba. That is why I feel greatly concerned with the advancing of such demand by the American side, concerned with its possible consequences, if necessary reasonableness is not displayed.
The demand which has been set forth is evidently pursuing, as I have already said, some other aims and that--I would wish, Mr. President, that you understand me correctly--can lead not to the betterment of our relations but, on the contrary, to their new aggravation. We should understand the position each side is in and take it into consideration but not overburden, not complicate our relations, especially at such an important moment when measures are being taken to eliminate the acute tension and bring these relations to a normal state.
That is why I would ask you, Mr. President, to meet our anxiety with understanding, to take measures on your side in order not to complicate the situation and to give your representatives a directive to eliminate the existing tension on the basis upon which both of us have agreed by having exchanged public messages. You spoke to the effect that missiles which you called offensive should be removed from Cuba. We agreed to that. You in your turn gave assurances that the so-called "quarantine" would be promptly removed and that no invasion of Cuba would be made, not only by the U.S. but by other countries of the Western hemisphere either.
Let us then bring the achieved understanding to a completion, so that we could consider that each side has fulfilled its pledges and the question has been settled. If, however, additional demands are made, then that means only one thing--the danger that the difficulties on the way to eliminating tension created around Cuba will not be removed. But that may raise then new consequences.
I think that you will understand me correctly. For you and I will evidently have to deal not only with elimination of the remnants of the present tension--there lies ahead for you and me a great, serious talk on other questions. Why then start now complicating the situation by minor things. Maybe there exist some considerations, but they are beyond our comprehension. As for us, we view the introduction of additional demands as a wish to bring our relations back again into a heated state in which they were but several days ago.
Sincerely,
N. Khrushchev


Letter From Chairman Khrushchev to President Kennedy Moscow, undated.(Received November 5th) - History

Dear Mrs. Kennedy:
The World Shares Its Grief, Letters November 1963
by Jay Mulvaney and Paul De Angelis

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER ONE, &ldquoFOUR DAYS TO REMEMBER&rdquo

Many of the nation&rsquos most highly-decorated military men paid tribute to the fallen president. &ldquoAs a former comrade in arms, his death kills something within me,&rdquo General Douglas Macarthur wired the First Lady in a telegram. Five-star General of the Army Omar Bradley, in the hospital, sent handwritten regrets that he could not attend the funeral. Sergeant York, the legendary hero from the World War I Meuse-Argonne offensive of 1918, wired a message of &ldquodeepest sympathy and regret.&rdquo Ill health also prevented Winston Churchill from attending in person.

Sir Winston Churchill handwritten letter.

London
24 November 1963.

Dear Mrs. Kennedy,
Never have I been so filled with revulsion, anger and sorrow, as when I heard of your husband&rsquos death.

On this great and good man were set the hopes of humanity. The grief and loss must be unspeakable for you, who have stood by him for so many years, and who were at his side when he was struck down. Nothing can be of consolation to you at this time. But I would like you to know that throughout the world, and in England especially, all men who prize Freedom and hope for Peace share your loss and partake of your grief. . . .

Winston S. Churchill

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER TWO, &ldquoFAMILY AND CLOSE FRIENDS&rdquo

Though the bulk of the condolence mail flew into White House mailboxes, the other Mrs. Kennedy, JFK&rsquos mother, was not neglected. Among the letters Rose Kennedy received was one from Pat Skakel Cuffe, the older sister of her daughter-in-law Ethel, and the first of the Skakel girls in whom Bobby Kennedy had taken a romantic interest, who had married an Irishman and settled in Dublin.

Pat Skakel Cuffe handwritten letter to Mrs. Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.

Dear Mrs. Kennedy,
All through these terrible days I grieve for you and Mr. Kennedy–stunned at the measure of your sorrow. – I hope it will be of some joy to you to know that surely every person in Ireland has prayed for your son today–and for his splendid family. The memory of the Irish being what it is, you will be prayed for on this island for years and years to come. . . . Schools and shops, government and business is at a standstill today–. . . Only Jack could have so caught the respect and love of a country not his own.

No one is prouder than I am to share his citizenship, his Faith, and through Ethel and Bobby,– his family. –

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER THREE, &ldquoMEMORIES&rdquo

Jack had developed an early partiality to the British cause partly on account of his younger sister Kathleen or &ldquoKick.&rdquo Kathleen was said to have &ldquothe soul of an expatriate&rdquo her introduction to British society via the American Embassy in London succeeded so well that she became an ardent Anglophile . . . and favorite of multiple young English beaux. Among these were William Douglas-Home, who became a well-known playwright Lord Tony Rosslyn (Anthony St.-Clair Erskine, Earl of Rosslyn) and most of all, William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington and heir to the Dukedom of Devonshire, with whom &ldquoKick&rdquo fell passionately in love and decided to marry, despite his Protestant upbringing. The union was vehemently opposed by Rose Kennedy, who threatened to disown her daughter for abandoning the faith of her ancestors. Luckily she had been adopted by no less a social figure than the American-born heiress Nancy, Viscountess Astor, who acted as go-between for mother and daughter.

When &ldquoKick&rdquo was killed in an airplane accident in the south of France in 1948, the eulogies poured in from all over Great Britain. &ldquoNo American . . . was ever so loved as she&rdquo wrote an anonymous correspondent to the London Times. Now, fifteen years later, some of the same people wrote to Jacqueline Kennedy about her slain husband. Wrote William Douglas-Home: &ldquoI loved that man. I never knew a nicer, greater man.&rdquo Nancy Lady Astor wired &ldquoLOVE AND DEEPEST SYMPATHY TO YOU ALL,&rdquo while her daughter-in-law Chiquita Astor wrote that Jack &ldquowas the one man I admired most through the years. One knew him, one had seen him grow and gain stature to the point that the whole world was focused on him.&rdquo Moucher Devonshire, mother-in-law of &ldquoKick,&rdquo wired that she was &ldquoOVERWHELMED BY TERRIBLE NEWS,&rdquo while the Earl of Rosslyn, Kathleen Kennedy&rsquos one-time admirer, wrote:

Anthony Rosslyn, handwritten letter.

Dear Mrs. Kennedy,
As soon as I heart that dreadful news my thoughts turned to you & the children, & I sent you that telegram. I am surrounded in this room by pictures of him & "Kick," & his autographed books are near me too. He was very much part of my pre-war life & when we met at your sister's for the christening, we talked of those days. What a senseless, wicked tragedy, & what an appalling shock & ordeal for you, your high courage will make it more bearable. You are so much in my thoughts & prayers & I hope that one day we may meet again.

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER FOUR, &ldquoPOLITICAL FRIENDS AND FOES&rdquo

Once the world had survived the Cuban missile crisis with a clear Russian setback, Kennedy felt he could afford a more cooperative attitude towards the Soviet Union, at least on the question of nuclear war. In his noted June 10, 1963 &ldquoPeace Speech&rdquo at American University, he relied partially on suggestions drafted by Norman Cousins, journalist and chairman of the peace organization SANE. Weeks later the U.S., U.K. and U.S.S.R. signed the world&rsquos first nuclear test ban treaty in Moscow, signaling a new era of non-nuclear competition between the superpowers. This willingness to curb nuclear weapons, along with the President&rsquos switch from a pragmatic political to a moral position on civil rights, brought him great credit among liberals.

Dr. Benjamin Spock, pediatrician, bestselling author and political activist with SANE handwritten letter

Dear Mrs. Kennedy
I have admired your husband for many qualities but most of all for his dignity. For the clarity of his vision and for his courage in fighting for the rights of Negroes and for peace.

I believe that the sacrifices of his death will inspire people with his ideas for generations to come and will further the causes he fought for.

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER FIVE, &ldquoTHE WRITTEN WORD&rdquo

Nevertheless the tradition of cordial personal relationships that had existed for over a century between American presidents and the publishers of the New York Times continued during the Kennedy years, as evidenced by the several letters the owners sent Mrs. Kennedy. Chairman of the Board Arthur Hays Sulzberger wrote about this &ldquosad, sad thing that has come to all of us and particularly to you and your little family.&rdquo President and Publisher Arthur Ochs (&ldquoPunch&rdquo) Sulzberger, declared that &ldquoNone of us will ever forget the great privilege of having known your husband.&rdquo Iphigene Ochs Sulzberger, the matriarch of the Ochs-Sulzberger clan that ran the Times, also sent her love, with special appreciation for the late President&rsquos &ldquokindness and consideration of me.&rdquo Most affecting, however, was the letter from Marian Sulzberger Dryfoos, widow of Orvil Dryfoos, Iphigene&rsquos son-in-law and the man who had steered the paper during the crucial years of Jack Kennedy&rsquos candidacy and early administration. Dryfoos, weakened by the stress endured during the bitter 1963 labor dispute between New York newspaper publishers and the city&rsquos printers&rsquo union, had fallen ill shortly after it ended, and died in the hospital near the end of May

Marian Sulzberger (Mrs. Orvil) Dryfoos, Director of Special Activities, New York Times handwritten letter

Dear Mrs. Kennedy
. . . If only in your hours of grief I could do for you what the President did for me at the time of Orvil's death. He sent me by special messenger a handwritten letter telling me how he felt about Orv and what Orvil had done for his country. I have often reread it and it is something I shall always cherish. I am so proud to have had a part in Orv's too short, but wonderful life. I know you must feel this way too about your husband for he was really an extraordinary man, warm, sympathetic and understanding. I saw him only last Monday in Miami and in the sea of people, he remembered so many by name and had a word for each of us. . . .
Pardon me for telling you of my loss, but somehow last Friday was like six months ago and with both of these wonderful men went a part of me.

Your courage is an inspiration to all of us. . . .

My deepest sympathy
Sincerely,
Marian Dryfoos

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER SIX, &ldquoHOLLYWOOD AND THE JET SET&rdquo

Darryl F. Zanuck sent Jacqueline Kennedy one of the longest telegrams she received. Zanuck was a co-founder of 20th Century Pictures (later 20th Century Fox) who worked independently in Europe during the late 50s and 60s before returning to Hollywood to finish production of the studio&rsquos epic, Cleopatra.

Darryl F. Zanuck, 20th Century Fox studio executive telegram

DEAR MRS KENNEDY
I WAS IN ROME WHEN THE TRAGIC ACCIDENT OCCURRED, IN ADDITION TO MY GRIEF AND SHOCK I WAS NEVER MORE ASHAMED OF BEING AN AMERICAN. DURING THE LAST SEVERAL DAYS, AND THROUGHOUT THE FUNERAL CEREMONY, I WAS NEVER MORE PROUD OF BEING AN AMERICAN. UNDER THESE TEDIOUS CIRCUMSTANCES YOU CONDUCTED YOURSELF IN A MANNER THAT GAVE NEW DIGNITY TO OUR NATION. I KNOW THAT YOU WILL BE INTERESTED TO LEARN THAT IN ROME ON THE DAY FOLLOWING THE ASSASSINATION ALL OF THE ADVERTISING BILLBOARDS WERE REMOVED THROUGHOUT THE CITY AND WERE REPLACED WITH LARGE BILLBOARD POSTERS WITH A FULL-SIZED PHOTOGRAPH OF OUR LATE PRESIDENT. ALL TELEVISION AND RADIO PROGRAMS WERE CANCELLED WITH THE EXCEPTION OF NEWS BULLETINS. THIS IS A SMALL TOKEN BUT IT IS INDICATIVE OF THE RESPECT A FOREIGN COUNTRY HELD FOR YOUR HUSBAND.

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER SEVEN, &ldquoMOURNING IN EVERY NATION&rdquo

Almost cataclysmic at the start of Kennedy&rsquos administration, relations between the USA and the Soviets had warmed considerably by the time he died. Ilya Ehrenburg, for decades one of the most visible and adaptable of Soviet journalist/intellectuals, wrote in a wire to Hubert Humphrey, which the Senator promised to pass on to Mrs. Kennedy, that the president had been a &ldquonoble and peace-loving man&rdquo and &ldquoonly a villain could assassinate such a man.&rdquo Nothing, however, could have been more significant for the fate of both countries than the genuine distress and sorrow felt in both the Kremlin and on the streets of the U.S.S.R.

Nikita Khrushchev, Premier and First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union telegram, in Russian

WN150 70 VIA RCA
MOSCOW 1215 NOVEMBER 23 1963
MRS. JACQUELINE KENNEDY
WITH DEEP PERSONAL SORROW I LEARNED ABOUT THE TRAGIC DEATH OF YOUR HUSBAND &ndash THE PRESIDENT OF USA JOHN F. KENNEDY. IN EVERYONE WHO KNEW HIM HE INSPIRED GREAT RESPECT, AND MY MEETINGS WITH HIM WILL FOREVER REMAIN IN MY MEMORY. PLEASE ACCEPT MY MOST SINCERE CONDOLENCES AND EXPRESSIONS OF MY DEEPEST SYMPATHY ON THE DEEP SORROW THAT BEFELL YOU.

Jacqueline Kennedy understood perfectly the import of this telegram, and did not hesitate to carefully compose a reply, itself reviewed by the U.S. State Department, in which she praised Khrushchev as a &ldquobig man&rdquo who–unlike the little ones moved by &ldquofear and pride,&rdquo was a partner with her husband &ldquoin a determination that the world should not be blown up.&rdquo The day after Christmas Nina Khrushcheva, the premier&rsquos wife, sent a New Year&rsquos card from Moscow offering her &ldquobest wishes,&rdquo which was personally sent on to Mrs. Kennedy by the Soviet ambassador, Anatoly Dobrynin.

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER EIGHT, &ldquoVOICES OF THE YOUNG&rdquo

For some more mature children, the assassination awakened suddenly adult sensations. Kenneth L. Weir, a sixth-grader from Paducah, Kentucky, who talked about himself as &ldquoa child&rdquo but in &ldquothis case&rdquo with &ldquofeelings of a man&rdquo found himself &ldquofor the first time . . .truthfully . . .able to say that I am ashamed to be an American.&rdquo

Chuck Slick, seventh-grader at the Lovett School, Atlanta handwritten letter

Atlanta, Georgia
November 27, 1963

Dear Mrs. Kennedy,
My name is Chuck Slick, and I am sure that you have never heard of me. But naturally I have heard of you and my heart goes out to you.

I think that a tragedy has befallen the country and the free world. For when the United States of America loses a leader, the West and aspiring free Nations of the East receive a dire setback.

Having been born in Texas, I felt nauseated when I was told of this frightening blow. It makes me angry at Dallas, even though my half-brother lives there.

Also I must say that I admire your courage. When my father died last year I didn't have half of your courage. You have my sympathy and my admiration.

EXCERPT FROM CHAPTER NINE, &ldquoA HERO TO EVERY AMERICAN&rdquo

A letter from Vesta I. Nelson, a mother in Orlando, Florida enclosed an emotional letter from her son. He had been unable to write her for several days, he said, because &ldquothe tears would blind me.&rdquo After cataloguing the many reasons he wept–for himself, for JFK and family, for &ldquoliberals and intellects, . . . for politics, . . . for America, . . . for the world&rdquo–he hoped nonetheless that the ideals JFK stood for would continue to guide all Americans. In a brash but moving letter, Jacob Govern of Brooklyn addressed himself directly to his &ldquonoble and magnetic president&rdquo with deep sorrow, declaring that &ldquoyou have not died in vain, our Prince.&rdquo A letter of condolence from Florida shows how quickly the general public caught on to Jackie Kennedy&rsquos promotion of the famous verses from Camelot as a touchstone for remembering her husband. The article by Theodore White that quoted her had been published in Life magazine on December 2.

Jean (Mrs. Arthur) Yehle handwritten letter

Key Biscayne, Florida
December 7, 1963

Dear Mrs. Kennedy,
An article by Theodore White that I read today prompted me to write to you to tell you how we, like so many others, share your loss.

The line from &ldquoCamelot&rdquo expresses our feelings perfectly. For one brief shining moment we saw Camelot. We were inspired to change our lives, to sell our business and send my husband back to the University to work toward a Ph. D., so that he might teach and do research, and we both might feel we were part of the effort the President was making to guide and shape our changing world.

We strongly feel that the man makes the times, that the hero theory of history has validity. We, like you, think there'll never be another Camelot again.

Our deepest empathy is with you.

From "Dear Mrs. Kennedy: The World Shares Its Grief, Letters November 1963" by Jay Mulvaney and Paul De Angelis. Copyright © 2010 All rights reserved. Reprinted by arrangement.

She received letters from political luminaries such as Winston Churchill, Martin Luther King Jr., and Charles De Gaulle. Hollywood stars like Lauren Bacall, Vivian Leigh, and Gene Kelly voiced their sympathy, as did foreign dignitaries including Queen Elizabeth II, the King and Queen of Greece, and the Prince of Monaco. Distinguished members of the arts and society&mdashEzra Pound, Noel Coward, Babe Paley, Langston Hughes, Oleg Cassini, Josephine Baker&mdashoffered their heartfelt condolences. And children, with the most heartbreaking sincerity, reached out to the First Lady to comfort her in her time of grief.

More than just a compendium of letters, Dear Mrs. Kennedy uses these many voices to tell the unforgettable story of those fateful four days in November, when the world was struck with shock and sadness. It vividly captures the months that followed, as a nation---and a family---attempted to rebuild.

Filled with emotion, patriotism, and insight, the letters are a poignant time capsule of one of the seminal events of the twentieth century. Dear Mrs. Kennedy offers a diverse portrait not only of the aftermath of the assassination, but of the Kennedy mystique that continues to captivate the world.

Terms of use: Private home/school non-commercial, non-Internet re-usage only is allowed of any text, graphics, photos, audio clips, other electronic files or materials from The History Place.


The Invasion of Cuba

Most published accounts and studies of the Cuban Missile Crisis tend to concentrate, almost exclusively, on the debates and decisions of the Kennedy White House during those harrowing days of late October 1962. Major aspects of the crisis, strangely overlooked, are just beginning to come to light. One is the preparation for war, against both Cuba and the Soviet Union, that took place in a period just short of two weeks and turned much of southern Florida into a D-Day—like staging area. The result would prove to be the largest short-term mobilization of men and equipment since World War II—exceeded in size only by Desert Storm. Nor have the plans for the invasion of Cuba, which came so close to happening, been revealed until now the exact tactical details of Operational Plans 312, 314, and 316-62 remain classified. Fortunately for the world, the trains (and planes) could be stopped, and were. This would not be another 1914.

The following account is adapted from Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside Story of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Its author, Dino A. Brugioni, a renowned expert in the analysis of aerial photography, was a key player in the crisis. Working at the time for the National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC) of the Central Intelligence Agency, he was one of the people who confirmed the presence of Soviet medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba.

Brugioni tells the story, as it unfolded day by increasingly tense day, of that mobilization and the preparations to invade Cuba and destroy the missile sites if the Soviets refused to back down. If the operation was unbelievably swift and for the most part efficient, remember that in 1962 the United States armed forces had reached a Cold War peak of morale and readiness. But that extraordinary mobilization did not come off without some typically American glitches.

Throughout the summer of 1962 the CIA had maintained close surveillance over the heavy volume of Russian shipping exiting the Baltic and Black seas bound for Cuba. The dramatic increase in Soviet cargoes and the arrival of numerous “technicians” at Cuban ports became a paramount intelligence concern. A U-2 mission over the island on August 29 revealed that the Soviets were constructing an islandwide SA-2 surface-to-air-missile (SAM) defense network. Soon after, the discovery of Komar guided-missile patrol boats and coastal cruise-missile sites to defend against an amphibious landing alerted the U.S. government to more sinister possibilities.

The emerging picture of a Soviet military buildup in Cuba particularly worried John McCone, director of the Central Intelligence Agency. Of the SA-2 missiles he stated: “They’re not putting them in to protect the cane cutters. They’re putting them in to blind our reconnaissance eye.” McCone insisted that the number of U-2 flights over Cuba be increased, and he expressed to top policymakers his concern that the Soviets might introduce offensive missiles in Cuba. On September 4 and 13 President Kennedy issued warnings to the Soviets that “the gravest issues” would arise if they installed surface-to-surface missiles (SSMs) in Cuba. In official statements and high-level meetings with U.S. officials, the Soviets stated emphatically that they would not deploy offensive weapons in Cuba.

On Monday, October 15, interpreting a U-2 mission flown over Cuba the day before, NPIC discovered two medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) sites under construction in the San Crist0bal area. When the president was briefed on October 16, he ordered the island completely covered by U-2 missions. Interpreting the photographs these flights brought back, the center found four additional MRBM sites and three intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) sites under construction. (The MRBMs could reach just beyond Washington, D.C., the IRBMs could hit all parts of the United States except the extreme Northwest.) NPIC also spotted four mobile Soviet combat groups.

General Maxwell D. Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), saw the secret Soviet move into Cuba with nuclear missiles as a major effort to change the strategic balance of power. It was an attempt to erase in one stroke the U.S. nuclear superiority to the Soviets. That superiority, according to a top-secret estimate, was at least 7 to 1. (In meetings with Americans in Moscow two years ago, Soviet officials stated that the ratio was closer to 15 to 1—or greater—in favor of the United States.) Taylor and the other members of the JCS recommended a preemptive air strike, an airborne assault, and an invasion to wipe out the missile bases. As Dean Acheson, then a senior adviser with the National Security Council (NSC), put it—and Taylor agreed—one does not plan a military operation of the magnitude of the Soviets’ with the expectation that it will fail.

The NSC debated three courses of action: a “quarantine” (actually a blockade) of Cuba, air strikes against the missile sites, and an invasion. The president chose the quarantine. At the same time, preparations were set in motion for the alternatives. Acheson began to press for a declaration of war against Cuba. He wanted to make it plain to the Soviets that “their bayonets had struck steel instead of mush.”

To the intelligence community, the Soviet-Cuban venture had the Khrushchev stamp: a gamble—bold, large, premeditated, but not carefully thought through. That gamble would become a colossal Soviet blunder. Militarily, as General Taylor would remark, the Soviets chose the wrong issue and the wrong battlefield.

JCS contingency plans for air strikes, a quarantine, and the invasion of Cuba had been completed by the summer and were known as Operational Plans 312, 314, and 316 respectively. Practice for these operations had already been scheduled to take place with an amphibious brigade landing exercise from October 15 to 20 on Vieques Island, off Puerto Rico. At the last moment the exercise had been canceled because of bad weather. But thousands of marines were still on their ships, ready for a real landing.

During the same period the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force were engaged in exercises called “Three Pairs” and “Rapid Roads” in central Texas. Units of the 82nd Airborne Division, the attacking force, were waiting at the James Connally Air Force Base at Waco, Texas, when ordered to return to their home base, Fort Bragg, North Carolina. The Tactical Air Command (TAC) fighters that were to support the 82nd Airborne were sent to airfields in Florida. The 1st Armored Division, which was to be the aggressor force in the exercise, was told to return to base at nearby Fort Hood and await orders.

The JCS, through Admiral Robert Lee Dennison, commander in chief, Atlantic (CINCLANT), began alerting naval Task Forces 135 and 136 to head for the Caribbean. Commanding officers were told to round up their men as inconspicuously as possible. Task Force 135 consisted of two attack carrier groups built around the nuclear-powered USS Enterprise and the USS Independence, along with 15 screening destroyers. It was to proceed to positions off the southern coast of Cuba. Task Force 136, the blockading force, consisted of the aircraft carrier Essex and cruisers Newport News and Canberra, along with an underway replenishment group and nineteen destroyers. The quarantine line was marked by twelve destroyers on an arc 500 miles from Cape Maisf.

Lieutenant General Hamilton Howse, commanding general of the Strategic Army Command (STRAC) and the XVIII Airborne Corps at Fort Bragg, ordered the commanders of the 101st Airborne Division, the 1st Infantry Division, the 2nd Infantry Division, the 1st Armored Division, and the 82nd Airborne Division to report to his headquarters immediately. He briefed them on October 19, a Friday, with aerial photos provided by NPIC and ordered them to bring their commands to kill alert status.

The 82nd and 101st airborne divisions stationed at Fort Bragg and at Fort Campbell, Kentucky, were alerted for immediate movement to intermediate staging areas in southern Florida. The 1st Division at Fort Riley, Kansas, and the 4th Division at Fort Lewis, Washington, were also alerted to possible movement. The 2nd Division at Fort Benning, Georgia, would be moved to New Orleans for embarkation. The 1st Armored would be sent to Fort Stewart, Georgia. The commanders assembled their staffs and gave detailed instructions for the movement of men and matériel from their commands to Georgia or Florida.

One of the first priorities was to establish an impenetrable air-defense umbrella over forces gathering in Florida. Just ninety miles and five minutes of jet flying time from Havana, Key West would become one of the principal bases of the crisis. Rear Admiral Rhomad Y. McElroy, the Key West commander, cleared Key West International Airport and the nearby U.S. naval air station at Boca Chica of all utility and support aircraft in order to accommodate the navy and marine strike, reconnaissance, and defense aircraft that had already begun arriving from bases along the East Coast. Naval Squadron VF-41, transferred to Key West from Oceana, Virginia, on October 6, was already patrolling along the Florida Keys and the north shore of Cuba. All leaves were canceled at the base.

Meanwhile, military aircraft of all types, from fighters to reconnaissance planes packed with computers and sophisticated listening equipment, began to converge on other Florida air bases. By the evening of October 19, hundreds of fighters were lined up wingtip to wingtip, ready for action.

Army air-defense battalions, equipped with Hawk and Nike Hercules SAMs, were given the highest priority for rail, air, and truck movement. From as far away as Fort Lewis, equipment was moved southward to defend the Florida airfields that were most vulnerable to Cuban attack. The Hawk surface-to-air missiles battalion at Fort Meade, Maryland, was ordered to proceed posthaste by road to Key West. The loading was quickly accomplished, but it was evident that there had been little regard for weight or orderliness in the packing of the equipment. The unit selected U.S. Highway 1 as the fastest route to Florida. As the convoy moved through Virginia, a state highway patrolman noticed that a number of the trucks appeared to be overloaded. He signaled the convoy to follow him to the weighing station. There his suspicions were confirmed. The military officers protested vehemently that they had an important defense mission to perform in Florida—they couldn’t yet say what it was—and that precious time was being wasted. The patrolman remarked that military convoys were always in a hurry. He calmly proceeded to write out a ticket—a warning to the U.S. Army to be more careful in future loading of convoys.

The great mobilization was under way. Ammunition and supplies were moving by rail and road from all parts of the country. Truck after truck left the Letterkenny Ordnance Depot in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, and began to roll to Florida loaded with ammunition. Several ordnance plants were placed on three-shift, seven-day weeks to produce 20rn strafing ammunition required for the fighter aircraft. The war plans called for the use of napalm as well as conventional ammunition. Hundreds of napalm drop tanks began arriving at the naval and tactical airfields, where they were stacked, according to one observer, like “mountains of cordwood.” Ammunition for naval gunfire against Cuban installations was also shipped to bases in Florida. Food rations came from such inland storage depots as Bonner Springs, Kansas. Army boat units, which would be needed for an invasion, were ordered to go to Fort Lauderdale and Port Everglades in Florida.

Military hospitals, especially those along the East Coast, previously devoted primarily to treating service dependents, were prepared to receive war casualties. Blood supplies were monitored, and troops not involved in the movement to Florida were asked to give blood. One hospital unit was sent to Florida on chartered buses. Presuming that this movement was another exercise, the buses had stopped at several liquor stores along the way. When it arrived in Florida, the unit itself was a casualty.

Billeting of the troops arriving in Florida was already becoming a problem. At some airfields the bachelor officers and enlisted men’s quarters were operated on the “hot bunk” principle: Three men would be assigned to each bunk with someone sleeping in it at all hours. Mess halls remained open around the clock. Later, after the president announced that missiles were in place in Cuba, the owner of the Gulfstream Park at Hallandale, Florida, invited the army to bivouac some of the troops of the 1st Armored Division at the racecourse. The army accepted, and soon military police were placed at all entrances parking lots became motor pools, and the infield was used for storage and mess. Troops were billeted on the first and second floors of the grandstand. Weapons and duffel bags were stacked next to the betting windows. Church services were held in the photo-finish developing rooms.

According to Contingency Plan 316, the 82nd and 101st airborne divisions would be the first to land on Cuba. Large numbers of transport aircraft would have to be diverted to support the operation more than 800 Lockheed Hercules flights would be needed to execute the invasion plan. Plans for deployment of the airborne divisions had been rehearsed and tested again.

Drops would be made at altitudes of from 700 to 900 feet. Airborne commanders knew conducting military operations on Cuba in October would not be easy. It was the season of rain and hurricanes, clouds and high winds, certainly not the best jump weather. Some drop zones would be in valleys containing sugarcane fields and cattle ranches. By the end of October, the cane fields would reach their maximum heights of seven to ten feet. The cane stalks not only posed a landing hazard for the parachutists but also presented problems in rallying and maneuvering—and provided the Cubans with sites that were ready-made for conducting guerrilla operations and harassing the airborne troops.

Those troops were issued a number of instructions about the treatment of any prisoners. They were specifically told that “Sino-Soviet bloc personnel” were to be carefully handled and taken into protective custody. At this point the United States was still trying its utmost to avoid a direct confrontation with the Soviet Union.

To assure proper interrogation of prisoners of war, Spanish-speaking military intelligence personnel were assigned to both division and regimental headquarters. Crash courses on interrogation techniques were offered to the airborne divisions. Prisoners of war were one thing, but it soon developed that the State Department had no specific plan for the handling of Cuban refugees. Although there were generalized plans for the occupation and a military government, there was no detailed plan for the recruitment of indigenous Cuban administrators. Nor were there plans to prevent starvation, disease, or civil unrest. When asked whether it had the funds to deal with such likely calamities, the State Department replied that “none had been budgeted.” This enormous potential for trouble would never really be solved—and other matters were more pressing.

One of the first issues President Kennedy raised during the crisis had been whether U.S. dependents at the Guantanamo Bay U.S. Naval Station on the southeastern end of Cuba should be evacuated. At the time there were over 2,800 women and children living on the base. The navy had strong feelings that the Soviets and Cubans might regard removal of the dependents as a sign of weakness rather than a matter of practicality. More to the point, it might also tip them off that the United States knew about the missiles, and the Soviets and Cubans might respond by upgrading their military and naval defenses. But Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara had insisted that the dependents be removed. It had not yet been established that McNamara was reflecting the president’s views. In an attempt to convince McNamara of the value of keeping the dependents at Guantanamo, the assistant secretary of defense for international security affairs, Paul Nitze, and the Second Fleet commander, Admiral Alfred G. Ward, met with him. Ward was in charge of the blockade—and the navy’s role in any invasion. Nitze pointed out various reasons why it would be inadvisable to pull out the American civilians. After listening patiently, McNamara stood up and said. “Mr. Secretary, you have your instructions to get the dependents out of Guantanamo Bay. Please carry out those instructions.”

Shortly after 11:00 A.M. on October 21, the Sunday-morning routine at Guantanamo was interrupted by phone calls and messengers hurrying to the buildings where families were housed. Each family was told to pack one bag per person and be prepared to evacuate within 15 minutes’ notice. Loading on aircraft and naval vessels was completed before 4:00 P.M. At this point the Cuban military threat was spelled out to them only in the most general way.

If the Cubans thought the Americans were showing signs of weakness by evacuating service dependents from Guantanamo, they were soon to see an impressive display of strength as cargo aircraft began landing on the airfield. By the evening of the next day, 3,600 marines and 3,200 tons of equipment had been airlifted by the Material Air Transport Service. In a glaring overestimate of U.S. strength, Soviet intelligence reported that “the garrison had been increased from 8,000 to 18,000 personnel from the 2nd Marine Division, and reinforced by 150 tanks, 24 antiaircraft missile systems and 70 recoilless guns. The number of airplanes had been increased to 120.” The actual U.S. defense force deployed to Guantanamo, including men and equipment already in place, comprised 5,750 marines, a Hawk missile battery, 155 tanks, several battalions of 105mm artillery pieces, three gunfire support ships, two marine air-attack squadrons, and a patrol squadron. Two aircraft carriers were in the area to render support.

The Guantanamo reinforcement was largely a deception, and it worked. While the United States regarded this as a defensive operation, the Soviets and Cubans saw the “uninterrupted intensive reconnaissance along Cuban shores and approaches” as proof that Guantanamo was “actively being prepared as a bridgehead for military operation.” But for the moment, the marines’ function was to secure the Guantanamo defensive perimeter once fighting started, it was to take on the Cuban artillery dug in on the surrounding hills. Only when the main amphibious and airborne forces established themselves on the island would the marines consider moving out.

Kennedy had originally intended to make his speech to the nation that evening, but politics dictated that he inform Congress first, and it proved impossible on such short notice to round up everyone who was out campaigning.

This was the day, a Monday, when the “Cuban Missile Crisis” became public. Planes had been dispatched to bring back ranking senators and congressmen. Even so, their briefing took place little more than an hour before the president’s speech, and there was considerable anger that he had waited until the last minute to inform them. Just before Kennedy went on the air at 7 P.M., U.S. jet fighters scrambled into the sky from bases in Florida. The action was termed an airborne alert—a precautionary measure” in the event of a rash action by the Cubans.” Not just the Cubans: As the president made clear, any offensive action by them would be considered an offensive action by the Soviet Union.

As Kennedy was speaking, the secretary of defense placed the entire U.S. military establishment on DefCon (defense condition) 3 status (DefCon 5 was all normal DefCon 1 meant war). In accordance with JCS directives, Strategic Air Command (SAC) B-47 bombers were dispersed to more than thirty predesignated civilian airfields in the United States. At two SAC bases in Spain, three in Morocco, and three in England, B-47 bombers were loaded with nuclear weapons and prepared for takeoff. Simultaneously, a massive airborne alert was begun by U.S.—based B-52 bombers and KC-135 tankers. The B-52s were loaded with nuclear weapons and ordered to fly under continuous command control, either far out over the Pacific, deep into the Arctic, or across the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. There the planes would wait for instructions either to proceed to the Soviet Union or to return to their home bases. In addition, fighter-bombers at American bases in England, France, Italy, Germany, Turkey, South Korea, Japan, and the Philippines were placed on alert and armed with ordnance, including nuclear, for striking targets in the Soviet Union or in Eastern Europe.

There were three intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) systems in the SAC inventory at the time: Atlas, Titan I, and Titan II. A fourth system, the solid-fuel Minuteman, would enter the inventory during the later days of the crisis. There were also 60 Thor IRBMs in England, 30 Jupiter IRBMs in Italy, and 15 in Turkey. Late in the evening General Curtis LeMay, chief of staff of the air force, notified McNamara that 91 Atlases and 41 Titans were being readied for firing. Nine missile-carrying submarines capable of firing 144 Polaris missiles had left their bases and taken up stations in the North Atlantic. Matador and Mace cruise missiles deployed in tactical wings were brought to combat status in West Germany they could strike strategic targets in Eastern Europe.

Fifteen minutes before the president’s address, the nation’s railroads were also put on alert. The Pentagon asked the Association of American Railroads for the immediate use of 375 flatcars to move air-defense and air-warning units to Florida. That evening the 1st Armored Division began the 1,100-mile trek from Texas to an intermediate staging base at Fort Stewart. This division alone would require 3,600 flatcars, 190 gondola cars, 40 boxcars, and 200 passenger cars. In all, over 5,000 men, 15,000 vehicles, and thousands of tons of supplies would be loaded on 38 trains, some up to 150 cars long. At the height of the crisis, normal rail movement in the Southeast practically came to a halt. Another 10,000 men would be airlifted in 135 commercial flights.

The president authorized the use of low-level aerial photoreconnaissance and of the navy’s F8U Crusaders later, air force RF-IOI Voodoos began flying from Florida at treetop level over the Cuban missile sites. The low-altitude photography, transferred immediately to Washington for analysis, added a new dimension to NPIC’s reporting. Each piece of missile equipment could be identified precisely and its function in the missile system determined. Rather than taking the interpreter’s word as they had with the U-2 photography, policymakers now could see clearly what the interpreters had seen and were reporting.

The JCS ordered DefCon 2—maximum alert before war with the optimum posture to strike either Cuba or the USSR or both. With this change of status, 1,436 U.S. bombers loaded with nuclear weapons and 134 ICBMs were now on constant alert: One-eighth of the bombers were in the air at all times, and air crews were waiting near the rest of the bombers, prepared for takeoff on a moment’s notice.

Both the White House press secretary and the news desk at the Pentagon were being besieged by reporters demanding to know more about the reported buildup for an invasion of Cuba. Although the president felt that the Washington press would exercise control in reporting military infonnation, he was appalled by reports that local television crews throughout the United States had stationed themselves near military bases and were making public the sort of details that would never have been leaked during World War Il and the Korean War.

Kennedy decided that a nationwide reporting guideline had to be established for the news media, and he asked the Department of Defense to draft it. While he made it clear he was not imposing censorship, he did want to restrict information on the deployment of forces, degrees of alert, defenses, dispersal plans, vulnerabilities, and air- and sea-lift capabilities.

Late that evening, the president called McNamara to confirm when U.S. forces would be ready to invade Cuba. The secretary replied, “In seven days.” When Kennedy pressed him on whether all the forces would be well prepared, McNamara replied that they would be “ready in every respect in seven days”: Wednesday, October 31, Halloween.

Photo interpreters at NPIC had identified four camps suspected of housing Soviet armored combat groups. All were in the vicinity of the missile sites, which would tend to indicate that their main function was to protect them. But other intelligence analysts had maintained that they were simply camps where Cubans were being trained to handle Soviet arms—or that they were temporary equipment transfer points, places where, as one U.S. general put it, “The Cosmoline was removed.” NPIC kept insisting that these were more likely to be Soviet combat facilities, since the equipment observed was parked in neat formations, characteristic of the Soviet army, rather than in the haphazard ones typical of Cuban installations. That equipment, of the most sophisticated recent vintage, included T-54 tanks, assault guns, tactical rocket launchers, antitank weapons, and personnel carriers. It wasn’t until October 24 that the intelligence community agreed with the photo interpreters that these were Soviet installations and that they did house combat troops, as many as 1,500 each.

The next day a low-altitude reconnaissance aircraft brought back absolute confirmation. At the Santiago de las Vegas installation, Soviet groundforce-unit symbols and insignias were seen implanted in the flagstone and flowers in front of garrison areas. One unit proudly displayed the Elite Guards Badge, the Soviet equivalent of the U.S. Presidential Unit Citation. These four camps were quickly targeted, and ordnance, including nuclear, was selected for their destruction in the event of an invasion.

That day, too, the continuing Soviet denial that offensive missiles were in Cuba was exposed as a lie when Adlai Stevenson, the U.S. ambassador to the United Nations, confronted the Soviet ambassador with aerial photographs of the missile sites during a Security Council meeting.

Throughout the crisis, President Kennedy was concerned that an American move on Cuba would provoke a countermove by the Soviets on Berlin. Close watch of Soviet forces was maintained in the Soviet Union and East Germany, but there was no indication of preparations for offensive action. The Soviets were obviously concerned that any such indication might provoke a first-strike response by alerted U.S. forces. Soviet U.N. ambassador Valerian Zorin told a group of neutral African and Asian U.N. delegates that “The Americans are thoroughly mistaken if they think we shall fall in their trap. We shall undertake nothing in Berlin, for action against Berlin is just what the Americans would wish.”

Khrushchev’s overall behavior during this week appeared unsure and erratic. He continued to lie about the missiles after their presence had been established beyond doubt. Even as he attempted to pacify the United States, his soldiers at Cuban bases were working frantically to bring the missiles to an operational status. After ordering his ships to turn around, he threatened to run the blockade using submarines. He threatened to fire missiles but took no overt offensive action that might cause the United States to further increase its alert status. U.S. military leaders knew that Khrushchev could be ruthless when desperate. The JCS was wary of what direction the crisis would take, determined, as Admiral Ward later put it, that they were not going to be “the Kimmels and Shorts of this generation”—a reference to Admiral Husband Kimmel and Major General Walter Short, who were relieved of their commands after Pearl Harbor.

To ensure the success of possible amphibious landings in Cuba, Ward decided that exercises should be conducted in Florida in as realistic a manner as possible. A number of projected landing areas in Cuba were at or near resort areas, so Hollywood Beach, near Fort Lauderdale, was selected to simulate the Havana beach area. In the predawn chill the sea off Fort Lauderdale was rough, and it was late morning before the marines climbed down nets from the ships offshore into the bobbing personnel landing craft. The bigger LSTs (landing ship tanks) prepared to move toward the shore to disgorge tanks and armored personnel carriers.

The littoral behind the landing zone, situated along the central portion of Hollywood Beach, was dense with hotels, motels, restaurants, and bars. By the time the men and equipment hit the beach, the sunbathers had already gathered under their umbrellas. The tanks, armored personnel carriers, and infantrymen soon joined the crowd on the narrow beach. Instead of obeying the instructions of a forward observer who was installed on the roof of a jai alai court, some of the marines began fraternizing with bikini-clad girls on the beach others posed for tourists’ cameras in their combat gear while an even greater number headed for the bars. Admiral Ward later characterized the exercise as about the closest thing to the Keystone Kops that he had ever seen. He never reported the Hollywood Beach fiasco to his superiors but, instead, emphasized that the landing exercises the same day at Hutchinson Island, Fort Pierce, and near Fort Everglades had gone as planned.

At 6:00 P.M. on October 26, the White House began to receive transmission of a long, rambling polemic from Khrushchev—which did, however, give a glimmer of hope. The Soviet premier hinted that he was prepared to withdraw his missiles if Kennedy would agree not to invade Cuba.

This was the day that would be referred to as “Black Saturday” by both the president and members of the National Security Council. Khrushchev remarked that “a smell of burning hung in the air. ”

Just before 10:00 A.M., Soviet personnel fired an SA-2 surface-to-air missile and downed a U-2 reconnaissance plane flown by Major Rudolf Anderson, who was killed. The order to fire was apparently given by General Igor D. Statsenko, commander of the Soviet forces in Cuba. The intelligence community could come up with no reason why the Soviets, who had been tracking the U-2 flights, would select this moment to down one. Most feared that the Soviets were escalating the crisis.

JCS Contingency Plan No. 312 directed CINCLANT to be prepared to strike a single SA-2 SAM site, or all Cuban SAM sites, within two hours of a U-2 shootdown. The established policy, agreed to by the president, was that any SAM site that fired at a U-2 was to be immediately neutralized. Sixteen armed F-100 Super Sabre fighters stood by at Homestead Air Force Base in southern Florida on 30-minute alert to attack any firing SAM site.

When word that Anderson had been shot down reached General LeMay, he ordered the F-100s readied to strike. The White House, realizing that there was a standing order for this operations procedure, frantically contacted LeMay and asked if the fighters had been launched. LeMay replied that they were being readied. He was admonished not to launch the fighters until he received direct orders from the president. Angered, LeMay hung up. “He chickened out again,” he said. “How in the hell do you get men to risk their lives when the SAMS are not attacked?” When an aide said he would wait at the phone for the president’s order, LeMay disgustedly replied, “It will never come!”

The crisis had entered a new phase. A fragile and volatile situation existed that could explode into a major conflict with little or no warning. The CIA now believed that all the MRBM sites in Cuba were operational. Pilots returning from low-altitude flights reported that antiaircraft weapons were firing on them. Analysis of the aerial photography revealed that antiaircraft weapons were being installed around the MRBM sites. There was also a desperate effort by the Soviets to camouflage and conceal those sites. And hundreds of trenches were being dug to protect them from ground assault.

That afternoon ExCom (the Executive Committee of the NSC) discussed what retaliatory action should be taken. It decided that, beginning the next morning, all low-flying reconnaissance aircrafts would have armed escorts. That afternoon, too, McNamara ordered 24 troop-carrier squadrons of the air force reserve, along with their associated support units, to active duty. Besides paratroopers, these squadrons would drop supplies to the ground units that would be placed ashore in an invasion of Cuba. And LeMay announced to McNamara that 1,576 bombers and 283 missiles stood poised to strike the seventy principal cities of the Soviet Union.

In the evening the CIA briefed the president in depth on the startling events of the day. He had already responded to Khrushchev’s message of the previous evening with the suggestion that he would be willing to make a pledge not to invade Cuba if the Soviets met his conditions. But Kennedy decided it was time to deliver an ultimatum. The president’s brother, Attorney General Robert Kennedy, was sent to meet with Soviet ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin, warning him that the United States had to have a commitment by the next day that the missiles would be removed, or the United States would remove them by force.

At that moment in Florida, 156 tactical aircraft were ready to strike Cuba. They were backed up by almost 700 more strike planes that were on the ground or at sea. The air force and the navy were prepared to conduct continuous air strikes until all the SAM, MRBM, and IRBM sites, as well as the Cuban air force, had been destroyed. If an invasion of Cuba were ordered, a total of 1,190 sorties could be flown the first day.

U.S. planning for the invasion of Cuba and possible war against the Soviet Union was now going so well that the date had been moved forward: It could come as early as Tuesday, October 30. Military leaders openly admitted, however, that an invasion of Cuba would be as bloody as Korea. The estimate of total U.S. casualties for the first few days of the combined airborne and amphibious operation was about 1,000 a day. The invasion would be opposed by 75,000 Cuban regular troops, 100,000 militia, and 100,000 home guards—not to mention Soviet personnel, then estimated at 22,000. (The Soviets later maintained that there were almost 40,000 in Cuba at the height of the crisis.)

The aerial and naval bombardment of the island would begin early Tuesday morning. The 82nd Airborne Division would be dropped farther inland than the 101st. The 82nd’s objective was to seize the San Antonio de los Bafios military airfield and the José Martf International Airfield just outside Havana. The 101st would also take the military airfields at Mariel and Baracoa, along with the port of Mariel. There would be airdrops of humanlike dummies to confuse the enemy. These, however, would not be ordinary dummies: They would be armed with recorded tapes to create the sounds of firefights.

There were a total of ten battalions of marines afloat in the vicinity of Cuba. They would come ashore at a number of famous beaches on Cuba’s northern shore between Havana and Matanzas and link up with the 82nd Airborne Division. (The Soviets and Cubans suspected the invasion would come ashore at these beaches and had deployed cruise missiles along the coast they also had dug defensive trenches along those beaches.) Once the beaches and the port of Mariel were secured, the 1st Armored Division would come ashore. They would move along the major highways and isolate Havana then they would head for the missile sites. Other units of the 1st Armored would strike southward to cut the island in half.

That morning at nine o’clock, Washington time, the U.S. Foreign Broadcast Intercept Service, while listening to Radio Moscow, began picking up an extraordinary message: It was an open letter from Khrushchev to Kennedy. The Soviets were clearly so alarmed by the speed with which events were moving that they elected to bypass the usual method of sending such a high-level message. Even in the time it would take to encode, decode, translate, and deliver the message, the crisis might have escalated out of control and the invasion might already have begun. So the Soviets decided to broadcast Khrushchev’s letter to the president on the radio. “The Soviet government,” the message read, “has ordered the dismantling of bases and the dispatch of equipment to the USSR… I regard with respect and trust the statement you have made in your message… that there would be no attack or invasion against Cuba.”

Less than 48 hours remained before the invasion was set to begin.

U.S. military leaders greeted the end of the crisis with relief. No one relished the prospect of heavy casualties—not to mention the threat of nuclear war. The main responsibility now fell on the intelligence community to monitor the dismantling of the missile sites and verify the removal of the missiles from the island. “The military posture of the United States,” Admiral Ward noted in his diary a week later, on November 4, “continued to be one of increased readiness.” Ships carrying 12,000 marines from the West Coast were on their way, while sizable units of the 2nd Marine Division remained at sea off Florida. Air force and army units were poised for an assault, as were the carriers Enterprise and Independence.

But by now only Fidel Castro remained belligerent. He threatened to fire on the U.S. reconnaissance planes. Anastas Mikoyan, the first deputy secretary, was dispatched from Moscow to pacify the Cuban leader. When Castro told him that the Cuban people were prepared to fight as they had at the Bay of Pigs, Mikoyan replied, “You won’t have a ragtag brigade against you this time. You will have the full might of U.S. forces. If you want to fight, you can fight—but alone.” Mikoyan tightened the screws. He threatened to return immediately to Moscow and cut off all economic aid to Cuba. Grumbling, Castro backed down.

After the Soviet missiles had been removed from Cuba, but before the troops assembled in the southeastem United States were disbanded, Maxwell Taylor wanted the president to see firsthand the military machine that had been assembled for the projected invasion. On November 26, accompanied by the JCS and the chain-nan of the House Arrned Services Committee, Kennedy arrived at Fort Stewart and reviewed just one of the three brigades of the 1st Arrnored Division. He looked on, incredulous, at the armor arrayed before him. That incredulity only grew as he traveled south that day, ending up on a pier at the Key West naval base. At Fort Stewart he recited a poem, supposedly found in a British sentry box at Gibraltar:

God and the soldier all men adore, In time of danger and not before. When the danger is past, And all things righted, God is forgotten and the old Soldier slighted.

The president added, “The United States forgets neither God nor the soldier upon which we now depend.”

But three decades later we have almost forgotten the great invasion that never happened—forgotten it, perhaps, because we never really knew how awesome it would have been. MHQ

DINO A. BRUGIONI worked for the National Photographic Interpretation Center during the Cuban Missile Crisis. He is the author of Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside Story of the Cuban Missile Crisis (Random House, 1992).

Photo: Abbie Rowe/John F. Kennedy Library

This article originally appeared in the Winter 1992 issue (Vol. 4, No. 2) of MHQ—The Quarterly Journal of Military History with the headline: The Invasion of Cuba.

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105. TODAY IN HISTORY—THURSDAY, APRIL 15, 2021

AA. 1954 Thursday: The struggle to resupply Huguette 6 north of the airstrip at Dien Bien Phu became a complete disaster today. French Colonial troops accompanied by a large number of Viet Minh POWs ran into an ambush and many of the prisoners of war were killed as well as quite a few French troops. Still, some of the POWs were able to get jerrycans of water up to the remaining defenders so they could continue repulsing one communist attack after another. The struggle continues…

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105. TODAY IN HISTORY—THURSDAY, APRIL 15, 2021:

DAY EIGHTY-SIX OF THE BIDEN ADMINISTRATION

Father Damien’s Day (Hawaii) / Yom Ha’atzmaut

President Abraham Lincoln U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justices Byron White and William O. Douglas Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev, the Nice featuring Brian “Blinky” Davison, the Ohio Players featuring Clarence “Satch” Satchell, the Rolling Stone’s “Aftermath,” and UFO featuring Phil Mogg:

  1. 1250 Friday: Pope Innocent IV (reigned 06-25-1243 to 12-07-1254- the 180 th Pope) refused the Jews of Cordova, Spain, who wanted the right to build a synagogue.
  2. 1450 Monday: During the 100 Years War, the French defeat the English at the Battle of Fomigny.
  3. 1452 Thursday: Artist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci was born in or near the Tuscan town of Vinci.
  4. 1654 Wednesday: England and the Netherlands sign a peace treaty.
  5. 1689 Friday: French King Louis XIV declares war on his southern neighbor, Spain.
  6. 1738 Tuesday: The bottle opener is invented on this date.
  7. 1788 Tuesday: England, the Netherlands, and Prussia sign a peace treaty.
  8. 1817 Tuesday: The first American school for the deaf opened in Hartford, Connecticut.
  9. 1850 Monday: The city of San Francisco underwent incorporation on this date in history.
  10. 1865 Saturday: President Abraham Lincoln died, nine hours after being shot the night before by John Wilkes Booth at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C. Andrew Johnson became the nation’s 17 th president.
  11. 1871 Saturday: “Wild Bill” Hickok became the marshal of Abilene, Kansas, on this date.
  12. 1878 Monday: Harley Procter introduced Ivory soap on this date in history.
  13. 1892 Friday: General Electric Company formed on this date and incorporated in the state of New York.
  14. 1894 Sunday: Nikita Khrushchev, future leader of the Soviet Union, 09-14-1955-10-14-1964, is born in Kalinovka, Kursk Governate, Russian Empire, on this date.
  15. 1896 Wednesday: The first Olympic Games of the modern era close in Athens, Greece.
  16. 1912 Monday: The British luxury liner, RMS Titanic, sank in the North Atlantic off Newfoundland at 2:20 a.m. ship’s time, more than 2.5 hours after colliding with an iceberg 1,514 people perished in the disaster, while half as many managed to survive.
  17. 1923 Sunday: Insulin first became available for diabetics.
  18. 1924 Tuesday: Rand McNally published its first road atlas.
  19. 1939 Saturday: The 79 th U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas assumed his position on the high court on this date. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt nominated his fellow Democrat Associate Justice Louis Brandeis’ seat. Douglas served from today until November 12, 1975.
  20. 1940 Monday: Future member of the Ohio Players[i]–Clarence “Satch” Satchell (saxophones/guitars)—is born in the USA on this date.
  21. 1942 Wednesday: Britain’s King George VI awarded the George Cross to Malta for its heroism in the early days of World War II.
  22. 1945 Sunday: During World War II, British and Canadian troops liberated the Nazi concentration camp, Bergen-Belsen. Meanwhile, friends and family buried President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on the grounds of his New York estate.
  23. 1947 Tuesday: Jackie Robinson, Major League Baseball’s first black player debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers on opening day the Dodgers defeated the Boston Braves by a score of 5-3.
  24. 1948 Thursday: Future vocalist with the British rock band, UFO[ii], Phil Mogg—is born in London, England, on this date.
  25. 1952 Tuesday: President Harry S. Truman signed the official Japanese peace treaty on this date. Elsewhere, the first B-52 prototype underwent aerial testing on this date.
  26. 1953 Wednesday: Pope Pius XII gave his approval of psychoanalysis but warned of possible abuses.
  27. 1954 Thursday: The struggle to resupply Huguette 6 north of the airstrip at Dien Bien Phu became a complete disaster today. French Colonial troops accompanied by a large number of Viet Minh POWs ran into an ambush and many of the prisoners of war were killed as well as quite a few French troops. Still, some of the POWs were able to get jerrycans of water up to the remaining defenders so they could continue repulsing one communist attack after another. The struggle continues…
  28. 1955 Friday: Ray Kroc opens the first of his McDonald’s fast-food restaurants in Illinois.
  29. 1956 Sunday: WNBQ-TV in Chicago became the world’s first all-color TV station on this date. The channel changed its call sign to WMAQ-TV later. Elsewhere, General Motors announced the first free piston automobile had undergone successful development.
  30. 1958 Tuesday: The first professional baseball game occurs in California the San Francisco Giants beat the Los Angeles Dodgers, 8-0.
  31. 1959 Wednesday: Secretary of State John Foster Dulles resigned his office as Cuban leader Fidel Castro started a goodwill tour in the United States on this date.
  32. 1960 Friday: The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee underwent organization at Shaw University on this date.
  33. 1966 Friday: The Rolling Stones[iii] release their “Aftermath” album on this date.
  34. 1967 Saturday: A jury of his peers found Richard Speck guilty of the murder of eight nurses.
  35. 1969 Tuesday: Above the Sea of Japan, North Korea shoots at a U.S. warplane.
  36. 1974 Monday: Members of the Symbionese Liberation Army held up a branch of the Hibernia Bank in San Francisco one of the group’s members—kidnapping victim and newspaper heiress Patty Hearst, now going by the name, “Tania”—participated in the event, something she denied later at her trial, one, by the way, she lost.
  37. 1981 Wednesday: Janet Cooke says her story on an 8-year-old heroin addict is a lie the Washington Post relinquished the Pulitzer Prize on the fabricated story.
  38. 1983 Friday: Tokyo’s Disneyland opens on this date.
  39. 1985 Monday: South Africa announces it will repeal prohibitions against whites marrying non-whites.
  40. 1986 Tuesday: The United States launched an air raid against Libya in response to a terrorist bombing at Berlin discotheque on April 5 Libya said 37 people, mostly civilians—of course! —died in the airstrike.
  41. 1989 Saturday: Ninety-six people died in a crush of soccer fans at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England. Meanwhile, in Beijing, China, students launched a series of pro-democracy protests upon the death of former Communist Party leader, Hu Yaobang. The protests would eventually lead to the massacre that occurred at Tiananmen Square.
  42. 1991 Monday: Magic Johnson of the NBA’s Los Angeles Lakers sets record for career assists for 9,898 assists.
  43. 1994: Friday: The World Trade Organization underwent establishment on this date.
  44. 1998 Wednesday: At the age of 73, mass murderer Pol Pot died. As leader of the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, the piece of shit murdered 2 million Cambodians and did so without ever facing prosecution for his crimes.
  45. 2002 Monday: In Denver, Colorado, the 93 rd U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Byron White died. White was nominated by President John Fitzgerald Kennedy to fill GOP Associate Justice Charles Whittaker’s seat. White served from 04-12-1962 to 06-28-1993. Elsewhere, Air China Flight 129 crashes into a mountain near Pusan, South Korea, killing 128 people.
  46. 2008 Tuesday: Brian “Blinky” Davison of the British rock band, the Nice[iv] (drums/percussion 1967-1970 / 2002) dies on this date at his home in Horns Cross, Bideford, Devon, UK. He was 65-years-old.
  47. 2012 Sunday: Around the world, people commemorate the 100-year anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Titanic.
  48. 2013 Monday: Near the finish line at the Boston Marathon in Boston Massachusetts, two Muslim terrorists set off a bomb that kills three, injures 183, and maims at least 15 people requiring them to undergo amputations.
  49. 2014 Tuesday: According to Brainy History, a total lunar eclipse took place tonight the eclipse will be visible in North and South America, New Zealand, Australia, and nearby regions the next total lunar eclipse will take place on October 8, 2014.
  50. 2015 Wednesday: ISIS is on the rampage in Anbar province as they capture three villages on the outskirts of Ramadi, the provincial capital. Elsewhere, the European Parliament approves a resolution on the 100-year-anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, the one carried out by the Ottoman Turks during World War I. Of course, Ankara is mad.
  51. 2016 Friday: Heavy fighting breaks out around the city of Kunduz, Afghanistan, as the Taliban launch their spring offensive. Local Afghan leaders say the attacks are being repelled and that Afghan government forces are standing strong. Elsewhere, Philippine presidential candidate Roderigo Duterte says that if elected, he will forge better relations with the Chi-Coms and will set aside all claims on the Spratly Islands.
  52. 2017 Saturday: North Korea paraded its intercontinental ballistic missiles in a massive military parade in Pyongyang as it celebrated the 1912 birthday of the country’s founder, Kim Il Sung, with his grandson, the murderous Kim Jong Un, looking on with orgasmic delight. Elsewhere in the United States, protesters take to the streets on Tax Day demanding that President Donald J. Trump release his tax returns so the liberal Democrats can scrutinize them.
  53. 2018 Sunday: British Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn- a Marxist POS- demands to see ‘incontrovertible proof that Vladimir Putin and Russia were behind the poisoning of Sergei and Yulia Skripal in a London park before he will go along with slapping sanctions on his idols. Foreign Secretary Boris “Bojo” Johnson says it’s ‘quite extraordinary’ to question the fact that the Russians carried out the attack on British soil, seeing as how the nerve agent used was one developed by the Soviet regime. Meanwhile, Israeli defense officials announce the discovering of the longest Hamas tunnel found to date and then destroyed it. Maybe the Palestinians should stop wasting money on tunnels and spend more on their citizenry?
  54. 2019 Monday: On this date, the Cathedral of Notre Dame erupts in flames, bringing down the roof and toppling its iconic spire among other things. Questions erupt as to who could be responsible, many believing the ‘religion of peace,’ Islam, might have had a hand in it due to all the terrorist activity that occurs in France and across Europe. Meanwhile, in Game 2 of the NBA Western Division Playoffs, the Los Angeles Clippers win a highly improbable comeback against the Golden State Warriors, beating them 135-131, in which the team overcame an NBA record 31-point deficit. To make it even worse for the Warriors, the loss occurred in their home stadium in Oakland.
  55. 2020 Wednesday: China’s biowarfare gift to the world, COVID-19, aka the Wuhan Virus, aka the Kung Flu, aka the Wuhan Flu, aka the Wuhan Virus Crisis continues running amok everywhere but seemingly not in Communist China where the crap began. Current confirmed cases for the entire planet are 2,071,710 with confirmed deaths sitting at 137,039 and confirmed recoveries at 511,356. In the United States, confirmed cases sit at 641,919 what with confirmed deaths at 28,399 and confirmed recoveries at 52,196. Now the Beijing bullshitters claim in the People’s Republic of China, there are 84,489 confirmed cases and 3,342 confirmed deaths and 78,987 confirmed recoveries. We know this is bullshit, folks, as Western intel agencies say there are at least 2.5 million confirmed deaths and God knows how many cases. When this ends and it will, it will be time to sue every level of government in the communist country and to welcome Nationalist China- Taiwan- back to the United Nations as a FREE and INDEPENDENT COUNTRY because until the West sold them out to open the doors for the commies, they WERE China.
  56. 2020 Wednesday A: The DOW Jones Industrial Average closed at 23,504.35, down 445.41 (-1.86%), the NASDAQ 8,393.18 down 122.574 (-1.44%), and the S & P 2,783.36, down 62.7 (-2.20%). Meanwhile, in Michigan, people protest authoritarian Governor Gretchen Whitmer who has the state on the severest lockdown order in the country. People took to the streets in their cars to let this fascist know she is out of line. If ANTIFA were an HONEST organization and not just a communist front group, they would be there braving rubber bullets, dogs, and tear gas to protest this left-wing skank. Finally, President Donald J. Trump calls for government to reconvene so the House and Senate can begin doing the work of the American people instead of sitting home spanking the wank.
  57. 2021 Thursday: COVID-19 STATISTICS FOR THE PLANET AS A WHOLE: 138,340,920 confirmed cases, +493,648, 2,974,830 confirmed deaths, +9,631, and 78,785,642 confirmed recoveries, +237,506. Next, here are the stats for the United States: 31,682,046 confirmed cases, UP 73,643 from yesterday’s reporting, 570,531 confirmed deaths, UP 975, and 119,012,328 confirmed recoveries. Note- we are going to do our own estimates of recoveries based on percentages seeing as how the CDC won’t report them.[v] In other COVID-19, a recent report says that Regeneron’s Chi-Vi cocktail can help prevent COVID-19 infections.
  58. 2021 Thursday A: NOTE: SINCE JOE BIDEN BECAME PRESIDENT ON JANUARY 20, 2021, THERE HAVE BEEN 243,639 CHI-VI DEATHS IN THE United States- feeble old Joe, in another two to three weeks, you will have tied the total number witnessed by the Trump administration in nearly a year of the rampaging coronavirus pandemic. Meanwhile, people are questioning WHY if everyone is getting their shots why the hell people must continue wearing masks like that dimwitted little troll, the AMAZING Dr. Tony Fauci continues telling us to do. WTF is up with that?
  59. 2021 Thursday B: COVID-19 STATISTICS in the four states in which, the world-famous American Institute of Culinary Politics-the Elemental News of the Day employs chef-bloggers- California, Florida, Hawaii, and Washington- here are the stats, California first: 3,709,809 confirmed cases, 60,734 confirmed deaths, and NO MENTION of confirmed recoveries. Moving on, here are the numbers for Florida: 2,148,448 confirmed cases, 34,238 confirmed deaths, and NO MENTION of confirmed recoveries (same as yesterday’s count). Next here are the numbers for Hawaii: 31,242 confirmed cases, 473 confirmed deaths, and NO MENTION of confirmed recoveries (same as yesterday’s count). Finally, here are the stats for Washington: 382,652 confirmed cases, 5,407 confirmed deaths, and NO MENTION of confirmed recoveries (same as yesterday’s). Let us look at one other portion of the U.S., Iowa, the ONLY state that shares its recovery numbers: they have 387,207 confirmed cases, 5,871 confirmed deaths, and 339,587 confirmed recoveries.[vi]
  60. 2021 Thursday C: Now that Mo has relocated to Israel, let’s look at the statistics there: 836,590 confirmed cases, 6,312 confirmed deaths, and 827,562 confirmed recoveries. Let’s look at one other country- Bolivia, the country where Che Guevara got whacked: 285,291 cases of the virus, 12,519 confirmed deaths and 234,596 confirmed recoveries.[vii]
  61. 2021 Thursday D: STOCK MARKET CLOSES/PRECIOUS AND RARE METALS: DOW Jones Industrial Average: 34,035.99, UP 305.10 points (+0.90%). Next, the NASDAQ: 14,038.76, UP 180.92 points (+1.31%). Finally, here are the stats for the S&P 500: 4,170.42, UP 45.76 points (+1.11%). The price of Light Sweet Crude Oil is $63.32 per barrel, -0.14 (-0.22%). The price of GOLD is $1,764.40 per troy oz., -2.40 (-0.14%) while the price of SILVER is $25.93 per troy ounce, -0.04 (-0.15%). The price of PLATINUM is $1,197.20 per troy oz, -3.00 (-0.25%) while the price of COPPER is $4.23 per pound, +0.01 (+0.17%).[viii] The price of PALLADIUM is $2,740.43 per troy oz, +63.98 (+2.39%).[ix] The price of RHODIUM is $28,100.00 per troy oz., 0.00 (0.00%).[x] Currently, Bitcoin, one U.S. greenback = 0.000016. As for Chi-Com money, one-dollar U.S. = 6.52 Chinese yuan. Meanwhile, one-dollar U.S. = 0.84 euros and in Mexican pesos equals 19.93. In Georgian Lari, one greenback equals 3.42 and in Ghana Cedi, a buck equals 5.76.[xi]
  62. 2021 Thursday E: U.S. NATIONAL DEBT AND GASOLINE PRICES IN THE THREE STATES IN WHICH WE HAVE CHEF-AUTHORS- Thanks to the Biden administration, gasoline prices continue rising by the day- in California, gasoline prices have risen to over $3.940 per gallon, $2.837 in Florida, $3.749 in Hawaii, and $3.345 in Washington state.[xii] Let’s look at one other location- Idaho: $3.066. Meanwhile, here is a snapshot of the U.S. National Debt for today: $28,174,429,261,064 and the Democrats are adding TRILLIONS of dollars to it, not BILLIONS but flipping TRILLIONS.[xiii] Cloward and Piven causing problems like they always do.
  63. 2021 Thursday F: COVID-19 NEWS- thanks to the Chi-Com gift that simply won’t stop giving, Pfizer’s CEO is now saying everyone may have to take a booster shot for the diabolical Xi Jinping Bat Flu every flipping year. Screw that. We are not taking the shot. Period. Meanwhile, Merck is planning on launching an outpatient COVID-19 pill. How about hydroxychloroquine? People in Africa don’t seem to be getting the gripe as much as other places in the world. Next, a new poll suggests that 1-in-5 Republicans have no plans on getting the ‘Mark of the Beast’ whereas Sheeple Democrats want to get it (and still teachers don’t want to return to work).
  64. 2021 Thursday G: FOREIGN NEWS / OVERSEAS NEWS- Joe Biden signed an executive order today declaring Russia to be a national security threat (while giving the Chi-Coms a pass. Good going, Joe). As Old Joe signs the order, the U.S. begins expelling Russian diplomats and slapping new sanctions on Moscow. Elsewhere, Senator Marco Rubio, R-FL, says that Joe Biden’s order is a ‘legality’ with which to permit action against the Russians for the SolarWinds hack. Meanwhile, more Republican lawmakers are pushing back against the ‘Biden plan’ to leave Afghanistan. Congressman Michael Waltz, R-FL 6 th congressional district, says that ‘pulling U.S. troops out of Afghanistan on September 11, 2021- the 20-year anniversary of the 9-11 terrorist event- is an insult to the American people. We concur.
  65. 2021 Thursday H: JOE BIDEN’S BORDER CATASTROPHE- Congressman Chip Roy, R-TX 21 st congressional district, is putting forth a bill with which to designate the Mexican drug cartels as ‘terrorist organizations.’ Meanwhile, Congresswoman Kat Cammack lambastes Homeland Security Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas as being ‘too scared, too cowardly to address Border Patrol officers face-to-face.’ We concur on this point, too. Speaking of the border catastrophe, Governor Henry McMaster, R-SC 117 th governor of the state, says that ‘Trump had it under control and that the Biden regime should return to his policies.’ Speaking of Joe Biden, former Governor Chris Christie, RINO-NJ, says that ‘Republicans should just get to the point and call out Joe Biden for being a LIAR.’ Amen. In other border news, we hear that “Kooky Kamala” Harris could soon be visiting the southern border. Oh, goodie. Finally, the lack of sufficient DNA testing at the southern border is going to allow more FAKE FAMILIES into the United States.[xiv]
  66. 2021 Thursday I: CRITICAL RACE THEORY / RACE / CRIME AND PUNISHMENT NEWS- Joe Biden’s ambassador to the United Nations- Linda Thomas-Greenfield much to the delight of the Third World thugs and dictators of the ‘august world body’ criticized the United States for being a racist hellhole. Wow. Why do all these people of color want to come to the U.S.? Meanwhile, Senator Ted Cruz, R-TX, slams another Biden flunky, this one being little bigot and hater Kristin Clarke, nominated to be Assistant Attorney General at the Civil Rights Division, for claiming to support the cops when she has articles and social media posts in which, she condemns all law enforcement as being racists. ‘Which is it, Ms. Clarke?’ The little b***h could not answer Senator Cruz. In other ‘race news,’ Fort Jackson drill instructor Jonathan Pentland is in trouble for pushing a black guy protesting in his neighborhood. He has been charged with 3 rd assault and Black Lives Matter protesters are surrounding his home day and night. Finally, Minneapolis Police Officer Derek Chauvin waives his right to testify at his murder trial. (Note- riots continue in Brooklyn Center, Minnesota, for the fourth night in a row while Officer Kim Potter appeared in court today over the death of Duante Wright).
  67. 2021 Thursday J: FEDERAL GOVERNMENT AND SUPREME COURT NEWS- Congressman Jerrold “Jerry” “Pillsbury Doughboy” Nadler, D-NY 10 th congressional district, and Senator Ed Markey, DS-MA, debuted their plan to ‘unpack’ the U.S. Supreme Court with their new bill with which to expand the high court to 13 seats so as to nullify President Donald J. Trump’s three successful SCOTUS picks, two of which, the two Democrats claim he stole from them. Senate Minority Leader “Cocaine Mitch” McConnell says that ‘responsible people must denounce the liberals’ court-packing scheme.’ We shall see. Senator Tom Cotton, R-AR, says that ‘IF the Dems expand the court to 13 seats, the nation’s high court will lose all legitimacy.’ We agree. Speaking of the high court, it upholds a lower court ruling in Ohio that bans abortions because of Down’s syndrome. In other news, the U.S. Department of the Treasury says that a ‘spy’ working for Paul Manafort, Konstantin Kliminik passed sensitive Trump polling data onto Russian intelligence back in 2016.
  68. 2021 Thursday K: MISCELLANEOUS NEWS I- The state of Florida passed a bill prohibiting trannys from participating in scholastic sports to which we say, “How about a third category of scholastic sports? How about tranny sports? Cheaper to build new locker rooms and showers than to continue fighting this BS in courts.” Ah, well, congratulations, Florida! The NCAA says it won’t hold any further sporting events in states that ARE NOT WOKE. We say, “F**k them.” Elsewhere, Arizona is going to hold the election ballot recounts from 2020 in the Veterans Memorial Colosseum. In other news, Republican senators are reintroducing a ban on the use of TikTok[xv] on federal devices and on federal grounds. A similar bill is going to appear in the U.S. House of Representatives. Meanwhile, in the Arkansas gubernatorial race, former White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders has amassed $5 million already.
  69. 2021 Thursday L: MISCELLANEOUS NEWS II- A new Quinnipiac Poll says that 52-percent of Americans disapprove of the job Joe Biden is doing while only 48-percent say he’s the ‘bomb.’ The guy is a senile loser. Next, the GOP U.S. Senate race in Pennsylvania is shaping up to be a SUPER MAGA PRO-TRUMP PRIMARY BATTLE. Next, people are wondering if President Donald J. Trump is going to endorse a candidate to whoop Congresswoman Liz Cheney’s butt in Wyoming? We think so. Today, he stood with Wyoming’s GOP Chairman Frank Eathorne, who happened to be in Washington, D.C., on January 06, 2021, the day the Democrats launched the largest FALSE FLAG OPERATION in U.S. political history.[xvi] In other news, Congressman Devin Nunes, R-CA 22 nd congressional district, condemns Biden’s intel leaders over their ‘politicizing and weaponizing intelligence information.’
  70. 2021 Thursday M: MISCELLANEOUS NEWS III- A recent poll says that ’72-percent of the American people support the Second Amendment.’ Guns are not going anywhere. Just saying. In other news, a split congress may take different paths to trying to pass Joe Biden’s $2.3 trillion ‘infrastructure bill,’ aka the BIDEN PORKULUS BILL. We hope it goes straight into the crapper. Next, we learn that intelligence leaders have confirmed what we all knew: that the ‘Russians are paying bounties on U.S. soldiers killed’ was nothing more than a crock of crap. According to them, there is low to moderate confidence that this is true. Moving on, House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, R-CA 23 rd congressional district, says that Congressman Matt Gaetz, R-FL 1 st congressional district, says the allegations against him are not true. OF COURSE THEY ARE NOT FLIPPING TRUE, Congressman McCarthy, the stuff the Dems are doing to him comes straight out of Saul Alinsky’s book, “Rules for Radicals.” Elsewhere, Vice President Mike Pence received a pacemaker for his heart today. Finally, federal law enforcement is telling all citizens living along the southern border to arm up for their own protection.
  71. 2021 Thursday N: BUSINESS NEWS- McDonald’s restaurants are going to implement new employee training in all 39,000 of its restaurants across the globe seeing as how some sexual harassment complaints have been filed against employees in some of them. Good for you, y’all WOKE now. Elsewhere, Deliveroo’s food delivery system has seen its orders double in Q-1. In other business news, Jeff Bezos says- having survived the union attempt at one of his factories- that he will do a better job for his employees. Meanwhile, last week, there were 576,000 initial unemployment claims which is the lowest number since the Chi-Coms sent the Xi Jinping Bat Flu around the globe.
  72. 2021 Thursday O: CRAZY NEWS- The AP Style Book says the term, ‘mistress,’ should no longer be used as (1) it implies the woman is to blame in a long term sexual relationship with man and (2) there is no male counterpart which some say is bogus as ‘cheater’ is a good name for a man involved in a long-term, ‘down-low’ relationship whether with a woman or another man. WOKE strikes again. Elsewhere, Facebook’s oversight board is weighing the future of President Donald J. Trump’s social media fate. Next, filmmaker Jeremy Corbett says that the videos have of UFOs are the best he has ever seen, deeming them authentic. We look forward to the report that supposedly is coming out on June 01, 2021. We will believe it when we see it as the federal government has made promises such as full disclosure before and always reneged on them. According to the National UFO Reporting Center, there were 7,263 sightings in the U.S. alone compared to 5,796 the year before which says it appears we are entering what UFO experts call a ‘flap year.’

BEVERLY CARRICK ORIGINAL ARTWORK OF THE DAY:

This artwork is #0435 a 20” x 24” original oil painting by Beverly Carrick, which, she entitled, “Evening Shore.” It is among her more beautiful works and is available for sale. You can see much more of her work at her Website, found at beverlycarrick.com, or at the blog’s Facebook page. At her Website, you will see not only more original oil paintings but also lithographs, giclees, prints, miniatures, photographs, and even her award-winning instructional video entitled, “Painting the Southwest with Beverly Carrick.” Beverly has been painting for more than 60 years and known around the world for both the beauty and timelessness of her artworks. Hanging in private and public galleries and followed by many fans encircling the globe—her works instill awe because of her artistic brilliance and personal beauty. We urge you to go to her Website NOW and view her work. It is possible that you will find something you like and will want to buy it for yourself, a friend, a loved one, or a neighbor! You will not be disappointed so please: do yourself a favor and go there IMMEDIATELY! Thank you, the American Institute of Culinary Politics-Elemental News of the Day!

Beverly Carrick: The World’s Greatest Artist (1927-2012)

ALBUM OF THE DAY AT THE AICPENDBLOG.COM:

For around $125 brand new, you can get the first 10 albums AFTER the Mick Bolton era by UFO all in one stupendous place: “The Complete Studio Albums 1974-1986” (January 31, 2013). Ten albums all in one place, we reiterate, you get them all in one place, remastered, sounding better than they did when they first arrived on the shelves of record stores (yes, Virginia, there were such places). IF you have yet to introduce yourself to this phenomenal band, folks, this is a wonderful way in which you and your ears can get into the groove. Granted, at Amazon the CD collection sells for around $125.00 but what the f**k? When it comes to rock music, only buy the best and friends, UFO is among the top 20 greatest British rock bands.

The above icon is the “Trademark of Quality and Symbol of Integrity/Logo” of the Magnolia Hilltop Brewers and of What’s Cookin’ Productions. The AICP-END Blog copyrights this article © 04-15-2021, all rights reserved. Total Word Count: 4,622.

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Original Beverly Carrick Artworks, Beverly Carrick—World Famous Artist, President Abraham Lincoln, Congressman Michael Waltz, Governor Henry McMaster, President Donald J. Trump, Senator Tom Cotton, White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders, Wyoming GOP Chair Frank Eathorne, Congressman Devin Nunes, Congressman Matt Gaetz, Senator Marco Rubio, Governor Chris Christie, Senate Minority Leader “Cocaine Mitch” McConnell, Congresswoman Liz Cheney, House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy, Vice President Mike Pence, Paul Manafort, Konstantin Kliminik, Nikita Khrushchev, President Andrew Johnson, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice Byron White, Joe Biden, “Kooky Kamala” Harris, U.S. Homeland Security Director Alejandro Mayorkas, U.S. Customs and Border Patrol, CBP- the, Ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield, Kristen Clarke, Black Lives Matter, Minneapolis Police Officer Derek Chauvin, Officer Kim Potter, Duante Wright, George Floyd, United States Supreme Court, Packing the Supreme Court, U.S. Department of the Treasury, U.S. House of Representatives, Capitol Hill Riots 01-06-2021, FALSE FLAG OPERATIONS, Saul Alinsky, Jeff Bezos, Amazon.com, “Aftermath” by The Rolling Stones, UFO, Phil Mogg, Brian “Blinky” Davison, The Nice, The Ohio Players, Clarence “Satch” Satchell, Just the Facts, COVID-19 Global and U.S. Statistics, U.S. Stock Markets, U.S. National Debt, U.S. National Gasoline Prices, DOW Jones Industrial Average, S & P 500, NASDAQ, Gold, Silver, Platinum, Copper, Palladium, Rhodium, Precious and Rare Metals, Light Sweet Crude Oil, Chi-Com U.S. Monetary Conversions, Georgian Lari, Ghana Cedi, Bitcoin, Chi-Com Yuan, European Euro, Mexican Peso, Pfizer COVID-19 Vaccine, Chi-Vi Vaccines, Cloward and Piven, Russia, Afghanistan, United Nations, Transgenders, Transgenderism, Trannys, Tranny Sports, Chicks with Dicks, WOKE, WOKEISM, WOKIES, WOKE AGENDA, WOKE IDIOCY, McDonalds Restaurants, Deliveroo, Social Media, Facebook, Unidentified Flying Objects, UFOs, National UFO Reporting Center the, Kilgore Randalini, UFO,

TODAY IN HISTORY, THURSDAY APRIL 15, 2021 #3,866

PLEASE READ OUR MAIN BLOG POST, PUBLISHED AT 12:01 A.M.

Thursday, April 15, 2021:

[i] We look forward to doing the music of this famed funk-rock band. The Ohio Players are amazing.

[ii] We look forward to promoting the music of UFO and of the Michael Schenker Group at some point within the next year. We hope you will remain vigilant as to the day that we do.

[iii] We shared the music of the Stones beginning Tuesday, 22-March-2016 through Sunday, 28-August-2016. This included the members’ solo projects. We sure as heck hope you check out the Rolling Stones, Mick Jagger, Brian Jones, Keith Richard, Charlie Watts, Bill Wyman, and Mick Taylor. Ronnie Wood you can find during the presentation of the Faces.

[iv] We hope to promote the music of both Emerson, Lake & Palmer along with the Nice at some point soon. We hope you will remain alert for the day when we do. Thank you.

[v] Bing has returned to reporting update numbers (well, mostly). Here is the link: (1) covid-19 u.s. and global statistics – Bing

[vi] Speaking of the decision to flip the game from Atlanta to Denver, we learned today that unsavory people like Stacey Abrams and the big dimwit, the pro-Chi-Com-loving LeBron James were integral in getting the game moved. How outrageous. How evil. Scumbags.

[x] Commodities Prices – Spot – Futures (tradingeconomics.com) See this site for much of the economic information cobbled together at this blog.

[xi] (1) Currency Converter – Bing See this site for currency conversions.

[xii] AAA Gas Prices– See this site for nationwide daily gasoline averages.

[xiv] We say the time is coming when the states are going to have to lay in minefields, antivehicle, antipersonnel, and anti-boat traps to take out the scumbags as they attempt to storm our country. We also believe that a few thousands dollars’ worth of lead will stop the tidal wave once and for all. NO other nation in the world would prevent the disaster our nation is undergoing due to weak, spineless leaders in the BOGUS, we repeat, BOGUS regime currently occupying the White House.

[xv] TikTok remains one of the Chi-Coms’ best intelligence gathering devices around the world but especially here in the United States.

[xvi] Speaking of the Capitol Hill Riots of January 06, 2021, testimony before congress yesterday and today suggests that Capitol Hill law enforcement was woefully unprepared, that they were lacking intelligence, and even worse, that many were told to stand down although no one clearly knows who the person giving the orders was. Can we suggest, House Speaker Nancy “Mumbles” Pelosi is in charge of the Capitol Hill cops. Let us look at her first. Thank you.

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Growing Up As Lee Harvey Oswald's Daughters By Fawn Vrazo, Inquirer Staff Writer

. June says that her neighbors do not know her story. Rachel is reluctant to reveal her background to others at the restaurant where she works as a waitress while attending college - she finds that the information makes some, but not all, people "uncomfortable." For Rachel, who looks a great deal like the man she calls "Lee," there has never been a time when she has forgotten who her biological father was. "I can really say I think of it every day,"

  • In fact, both girls were popular and active students at Rockwall High School in the small town of Rockwall, north of Dallas, where they were raised by Marina and their stepfather, Ken Porter.
  • With the exception of one coach who made June cry by making insinuations about her past, Rachel said, there was never much attention paid to their background while the two were in school.

.americaussr

    anti-semitic oswald-was-cia
  • LEE HARVEY OSWALD
    PATSY FOR CIA / SECRET SERVICE ASSASSINATION COVERUP OF JOHN F. KENNEDY
    CIA AGENT
    ASSASSINATED BY JEWISH UNDERWORLD FIGURE JACOB RUBENSTEIN
    ALIAS "JACK RUBY" DALLAS NIGHTCLUB OWNER & FRIEND OF CHICAGO JEWISH GANGSTER MEYER LANSKY

.CIA conspiracy theories

http://jfk.hood.edu/Collection/Weisberg%20Subject%20Index%20Files/B%20Disk/Brussell%20Mae/Item%2025.pdf
He was sent to Russia by CIA to leak U-2 so that they could shoot him down and wreck peace efforts by the president
"top secret papers reveal oswald was CIA agent"
- says his mother told everybody she thought he was in Russia for the CIA, blowing his cover

Testimony Of John A. Mccone And Richard M. Helms

..

Mr. McCONE. As I have already stated, we were never in contact with Oswald. We have no evidence that he was working for or on behalf of the Soviet Union at any time. According to his diary, Oswald did receive a subsidy from the Soviet Red Cross which we assume had the approval of the authorities. Such a payment does not indicate to us that he even worked for the Soviet intelligence services. Furthermore, we have no other evidence that he ever worked for Soviet intelligence.

If so, it was a rare moment of inattention to Oswald in L

.Claremont Institute

  • .Claremont Institute The Making of a Martyr by James Piereson President John F. Kennedy was cut down on the streets of Dallas by rifle shots fired by Lee Harvey Oswald, a self-described Marxist, recent defector to the Soviet Union, and ardent admirer of Fidel Castro. A recent poll found that 75% of American adults believe that JFK was the victim of a conspiracy of some kind, usually of a right-wing variety. JFK was a martyr in the Cold War struggle against Communism. Lee Harvey Oswald was not a product of a "climate of hate" found in Dallas or anywhere else in the United States. Oswald defected from the United States to the Soviet Union in 1959, vowing when he did so that he could no longer live under a capitalist system. He returned to the United States with his Russian wife in 1962 in disappointment with life under Soviet Communism but without giving up his Marxist beliefs. By 1963 he had transferred his political allegiance from the Soviet Union to Castro's Communist regime in Cuba

.Clay Shaw

PBS whitewashes Oswald's KGB connections
http://www.renewamerica.com/columns/kincaid/131121
Why the Communists Killed Kennedy
Canada Free Press Why the Communists Killed Kennedy, our media love Castro and his progressive fellow travelers more than they want the facts about the . s noted by former FBI agent Herman Bly in his book, Communism, the Cold War, and the FBI Connection, Oswald met with a Soviet KGB espionage agent connected with KGB Department Thirteen, which was in charge of assassinations. Bly had gone to the U.S. Embassy in 1965, on assignment for the CIA, and reviewed its files on Soviet personnel in MexicoCity.

“The Russians would never have ordered Oswald to kill Kennedy because of his well-known links to Russia and his pro-Cuban sympathies,” Perry says. “Russia’s leaders knew they would have been the first suspects if they’d engineered an assassination by Oswald. It would have been an act of war, which could have triggered a nuclear attack.”

Convinced by the Communists? Some theorize Soviets or Castro inspired Oswald to kill JFK
NBCNews.com‎ - 1 day ago
Why the Communists Killed Kennedy - Trevor Loudon's New Zeal Blog
Why the Communists Killed Kennedy. Submitted by Terresa Monroe-Hamilton on November 20, 2013 – 4:24 pm ESTNo Comment. By: Cliff Kincaid Accuracy in .

The Communists Killed Kennedy - Accuracy In Media
www.aim.org › AIM Column‎
Jul 2, 2012 - Former CIA officer Brian Latell's new book, Castro's Secrets, includes the revelation that Fidel Castro knew Lee Harvey Oswald was going to kill .

.Cuba exiles

'A keen interest in Oswald' - History Matters
www.history-matters.com/essays/frameup/. /WhatJaneRomanSaid_3.htm‎
All we had was the FBI report on the arrest of Oswald and his antagonists in the Cuban Student Directorate that was forwarded to the CIA. The routing slip .

JFKfacts » Cuban Student Directorate
jfkfacts.org/tag/cuban-student-directorate/‎
Nov 12, 2013 - Tag Archive for Cuban Student Directorate . CIA admits undercover officer lived in New Orleans . organization whose members had a series of encounters with accused presidential assassin Lee Oswald in August 1963.

What Jane Roman Said -- Part 6
mcadams.posc.mu.edu/morley6.htm‎
Cuban officials have long contended that the Cuban Student Directorate's effort to linkOswald to Castro was part of a deliberate CIA plan to exploit the .

C.I.A. Is Still Cagey About Oswald Mystery - NYTimes.com
www.nytimes.com/2009/10/17/us/17inquire.html?pagewanted=all‎
Oct 16, 2009 - The C.I.A. hid its schemes to kill Fidel Castro and its ties to the anti-Castro Directorio Revolucionario Estudantil, or Cuban Student Directorate, .


Blather: Oswald and the CIA (part three)
Oct 25, 2013 - Once again this blog turns to John Newman's Oswald and the CIA . Cuban revolutionaries, specifically the Cuban Student Directorate, the .

Let Justice Be Done / Chapter 4: The Return of Lee Harvey Oswald
www.ctka.net/LetJusticeBeDone/chapfrme.htm‎
Oswald had visited Bringuier's clothing store four days earlier offering to train members of Bringuier's exile group, the CIA funded Cuban Student Directorate or .


John Newman - 2008 - ‎History
. an important propaganda event, a live radio debate featuring Oswald and Cubans, staged by a CIA-backed exile group, the Cuban Student Directorate (DRE).


A better source would have been Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa's book,Programmed to Kill: Moscow's Responsibility for Lee Harvey Oswald's Assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy. It examines in detail the KGB's disinformation Operation Dragon to "throw the blame on various elements in the United States for killing their own president."


.. lies was that Oswald went to the Soviet embassy in Mexico City to get a Russian visa so that he could then travel to Cuba. In fact, Pacepa says, Oswald met with Kostikov outside the embassy, in order to discuss Kennedy's murder.

book review: Politics by Assassination: Pacepa Makes a Strong Case
By Jeff R. Nyquist on June 27, 2009
Format: Hardcover
Did the Kremlin order a hit on President John F. Kennedy in 1962? The former chief of Communist Romania's foreign intelligence service thinks so. And he lays out his case in a recently published book with the title Programmed to Kill: Lee Harvey Oswald, the Soviet KGB, and the Kennedy Assassination. According to Ion Mihai Pacepa, "all Soviet-bloc espionage services were identically organized and had an identical modus operandi." Pacepa also explained that, "Soviet espionage operations . can easily be identified by their particular patterns, of you are familiar with them."

Looking at the case of Lee Harvey Oswald, Pacepa sees a KGB pattern. In the mid-to-late 1950s the Soviet bloc intelligence services were ordered to recruit American servicemen. To this end, loose women were used as "spotters" at bars and nightclubs located near U.S. military bases in Germany and Japan. They were told to watch for U.S. servicemen sympathetic to left-liberal or Marxist ideas. Lee Harvey Oswald was not only an America serviceman stationed in Japan in 1957. He was fascinated by Marxism. As a Marine Corps radar operator Oswald also possessed clues to the flight altitude of the American U-2 spy plane. It was no accident, therefore, that the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 spy plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers on 1 May 1960.

It was noteworthy that Oswald seemed to live beyond his means while in Japan. He dated a hostess from one of the most expensive nightclubs, whose attentions for one night would cost a month's pay. How could he afford such a woman? The answer becomes obvious, says Pacepa, if we realize that Oswald had "Soviet spy" written all over him. When his work in Japan was finished, Oswald didn't want to be in the Marine Corps any longer. What he wanted was to live in the worker's paradise - the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. So Lee Harvey Oswald defected to the Soviet Union in October 1959. After helping the Soviets to track and shoot down the U-2 spy plane, Oswald was trained by the KGB as an assassin and returned to the United States.
According to Pacepa, it was standard practice for an agent like Oswald to carry a fake diary (created by disinformation specialists) as part of his "legend." Oswald had such a diary, an obvious fabrication with British spellings and expressions (due to the fact that Russian special services were not trained in American English until 1964). Another standard practice was to pair recruited American agents with wives from Soviet bloc countries, so that the wives could keep watch on them. As it happens, Oswald returned to the United States with a Russian wife.

As for Pacepa's sensational assertion about Khrushchev dispatching Oswald to kill Kennedy, the following points are offered by the former Soviet bloc insider: First, Pacepa's superiors in Romanian intelligence thought that Khrushchev intended to kill JFK. What was Khrushchev's motive? First there was the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, which earned Kennedy the KGB codename "Pig." Hoping for a weak liberal in the White House, Khrushchev was seriously disappointed. Instead of a willing dupe, Kennedy proved to be a strong anti-Communist. Khrushchev angrily told his colleagues that Kennedy was an "arrogant millionaire" and a "warmongering fanatic manipulated by the CIA."

Bolstered by the CIA's failed Bay of Pigs invasion, Khrushchev decided to force the Americans to give up West Berlin. "If Kennedy wanted war," explained Pacepa, "that was his problem - the Soviet Union would have no choice but to accept his challenge." Kennedy called Khrushchev's bluff, however. "We cannot and will not permit the Communists to drive us out of Berlin, either gradually or by force," said Kennedy. According to Pacepa, Romanian intelligence found that Kennedy had ordered "contingency plans for using nuclear weapons against the Soviet Union" should the crisis escalate.

Khrushchev knew only too well that he had few if any ways to reach the United States with Soviet nuclear weapons." Most Soviet missiles weren't able to fly as far as the United States in those days. What was the Kremlin's solution? Khrushchev decided to secretly deploy more than 50,000 Soviet troops to Cuba along with nuclear-tipped missiles that could threaten Washington and New York - allowing Khrushchev to resume his push against West Berlin. Once again, Kennedy opposed the Soviet leader with a blockade of Cuba. As a result, Khrushchev removed the missiles from Cuba. But Khrushchev would not forgive Kennedy. According to Pacepa, the leader of Communist Romania returned from a trip to Moscow and said, "The lunatic [Khrushchev] is so furious at Kennedy that he's ready to tear him limb from limb with his bare teeth!"

In terms of Khrushchev's character, and his readiness to order a hit on the American president, Pacepa wrote: "Today people remember Khrushchev as a down-to-earth peasant who corrected the evils of Stalin. But he was not. The Khrushchev I knew was a compulsive political chatterbox who had no objective appreciation of facts, and who had gotten a taste for the simple criminal solution because of his close association with Stalin's mass killings."

It is well known that Stalin and Khrushchev both dispatched assassins to the West. In the late 1930s Stalin called for the head of his former colleague, Leon Trotsky. As history records, Ramón Mercader fatally stabbed Trotsky with an ice pick in Mexico. Not only did Stalin reward the assassin's mother with the Order of Lenin but in 1961 Khrushchev rewarded Mercader with the highest decoration the Kremlin could offer, Hero of the Soviet Union.

As for Khrushchev's assassination exploits, they were exposed in the case of Bogdan Stashinsky who confessed to a West German court that he had assassinated two "enemies of the Soviet Union" on Khrushchev's orders. There is also the case of Nikolai Khokhlov who defected to the West in the midst of an assassination mission. According to Pacepa, Khrushchev wanted to liquidate President Kennedy. There is no doubt he had a motive. In Oswald he found the means.
It is, of course, a fact that many Americans believe the CIA assassinated President Kennedy. After Kennedy's death this idea was propagated on orders from Moscow to divert attention away from the Kremlin. This propaganda effort is described by Pacepa, and has been documented in the work of former KGB archive specialist Vasili Mitrokhin.

Rather than accepting the KGB disinformation line about the Kennedy assassination, American's should read Pacepa's book and judge for themselves.


Watch the video: The Killing of President Kennedy


Comments:

  1. Menes

    It is a pity that I cannot express myself now - there is no leisure. I will be back - I will absolutely express the opinion.

  2. Layth

    Unlucky thought

  3. Caldre

    I think you are not right. We will discuss.



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