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American Field Hospital on New Georgia
Here we see a US field hospital somewhere on New Georgia, either built using local materials or using a local hut.
Medicine in the American Civil War
The state of medical knowledge at the time of the Civil War was extremely primitive. Doctors did not understand infection, and did little to prevent it. It was a time before antiseptics, and a time when there was no attempt to maintain sterility during surgery. No antibiotics were available, and minor wounds could easily become infected, and hence fatal. While the typical soldier was at risk of being hit by rifle or artillery fire, he faced an even greater risk of dying from disease.
Battle of the Wilderness: Union Offensive Begins
In February 1864, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Ulysses S. Grant as commander in chief of all Union armies in the Civil War. Wasting no time, Grant began planning a major offensive toward the Confederate capital of Richmond, to be known as the Overland Campaign. His primary goal was to engage Robert E. Lee’s famed Army of Northern Virginia and keep it under pressure to defend the capital, making it impossible for Lee to send more soldiers to defend against the Union advance into Georgia led by William T. Sherman.
Did you know? The onward advance that General Ulysses S. Grant ordered after the Battle of the Wilderness marked the first time in the course of the Civil War that the Army of the Potomac had continued on the offensive after an opening battle in a Virginia campaign.
Over the winter, Union and Confederate armies had faced each other across the Rapidan River in northern Virginia. Grant now ordered around 115,000 soldiers of the Army of the Potomac, led by George Meade, to cross the Rapidan on May 4 and march through an area of dense woodland known as the Wilderness, which lay along the river’s southern bank. Though Grant had been planning to march quickly through the Wilderness and slip behind Lee’s right wing, the Confederate general (who had some 65,000 troops) decided to confront the enemy in the familiar terrain of the Wilderness, in order to overcome some of the Union’s numerical advantage.
American Field Hospital on New Georgia - History
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By late August 1864, the city of Atlanta was not yet subdued by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's armies. A few supply lines remained open to the city supporting the army of Lieut. Gen. John B. Hood encircled there. Union cavalry raids inflicted only superficial damage, quickly repaired by the Confederates. Sherman determined that if he could destroy the Macon & Western and Atlanta & West Point Railroads to the south the Rebel army would be forced to evacuate the city. On August 25, Union infantry began moving towards the railroad near Jonesborough. To counter Sherman, Hood sent Lieut. Gen. William J. Hardee with two corps to halt the Union movement. On August 31, Hardee attacked west of Jonesborough but was easily repulsed. Fearing a direct attack on Atlanta, Hood withdrew one corps from Hardee’s force that night. The next day, a Union attack broke through Hardee’ s troops which retreated south. That evening, Hood finally evacuated Atlanta, which surrendered to Federal troops on September 2. Sherman had finally won the strategically important Confederate city, but had not defeated the Army of Tennessee.
Marriage Records on Microfilm
- Marriage Records of the Office of the Commissioner, Washington Headquarters of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, 1861-1869 ( M1875, 5 rolls)
This microfilm series contains hundreds of marriage records of newly liberated African Americans in the post-Civil War era collected from 1861 through 1869 first by the Union Army and then the Freedmen's Bureau in its field offices in the Southern States and the District of Columbia, and sent to the Washington, DC, headquarters. Record types include unbound marriage certificates, marriage licenses, monthly reports of marriages, and other proofs of marriages. Record type and quantity varies with each state.
Freedmen's Branch, Office of the Adjutant General
The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) collections are among the largest and most heavily used in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress. Since 2000, documentation from the Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) has been added to the holdings. The collections document achievements in architecture, engineering, and landscape design in the United States and its territories through a comprehensive range of building types, engineering technologies, and landscapes, including examples as diverse as the Pueblo of Acoma, houses, windmills, one-room schools, the Golden Gate Bridge, and buildings designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Administered since 1933 through cooperative agreements with the National Park Service, the Library of Congress, and the private sector, ongoing programs of the National Park Service have recorded America's built environment in multiformat surveys comprising more than 581,000 measured drawings, large-format photographs, and written histories for more than 43,000 historic structures and sites dating from Pre-Columbian times to the twentieth century. This online presentation of the HABS/HAER/HALS collections includes digitized images of measured drawings, black-and-white photographs, color transparencies, photo captions, written history pages, and supplemental materials. Since the National Park Service's HABS, HAER and HALS programs create new documentation each year, documentation will continue to be added to the collections. The first phase of digitization of the Historic American Engineering Record collection was made possible by the generous support of the Shell Oil Company Foundation.
Georgia Historical Society (GHS) is the premier independent statewide institution responsible for collecting, examining, and teaching Georgia history. GHS houses the oldest and most distinguished collection of materials related exclusively to Georgia history in the nation. Founded in 1839, the Georgia Historical Society is the oldest continuously operated historical society in the South.
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Savannah, GA 31401
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Savannah, GA 31401
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Atlanta, GA 30308
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Research Center (Savannah):
Temporarily closed due to renovation.
GHS digital archival resources available at Georgiahistory.com/research.
The Georgia Historical Society has been awarded its eleventh consecutive 4-Star Rating from Charity Navigator, the largest charity evaluator in America, for sound fiscal management and commitment to accountability and transparency, a distinction that places The Society among an elite 1% of non-profit organizations in America.
What Causes High Nursing Turnover?
There are many causes of high nursing turnover. Nearly 18 percent of new RNs resign from their first nursing job during the first year and a third leave within two years (according to a 2014 study, “What Does Nurse Turnover Rate Mean and What Is the Rate?”). That could be because of the high stress levels that are common among new nurses, the low autonomy when a nurse is new to a hospital or healthcare setting, or something else.
It’s no secret that nurses often have longer shifts, with many facilities typically requiring nurses to work for 12 hours at a time. The longer the shift length, the more likely that nurse retention is a top challenge, according to a 2017 HealthLeaders Media Nursing Excellence Survey.
Staffing can be a challenge for hospitals facing nursing shortages, which can lead to nurses working overtime or being asked to fulfill duties beyond their capabilities or skill levels. Hospitals or facilities that are short-staffed might lean heavily on the nurses they do have, which causes added stress.
The American Hospital Association conducts an annual survey of hospitals in the United States. The data below, from the 2019 AHA Annual Survey, are a sample of what you will find in AHA Hospital Statistics, 2021 edition. The definitive source for aggregate hospital data and trend analysis, AHA Hospital Statistics includes current and historical data on utilization, personnel, revenue, expenses, managed care contracts, community health indicators, physician models, and much more. The AHA has also created Fast Facts on U.S. Hospitals Infographics to provide visualizations for this data.
AHA Hospital Statistics is published annually by Health Forum, an affiliate of the American Hospital Association. To order print copies of AHA Hospital Statistics, call (800) AHA-2626 or visit the AHA online store. An interactive online version is also available.
Note that the ICU bed data is not published in AHA Hospital Statistics.
For further information, contact the AHA Resource Center at [email protected]
Total Number of All U.S. Hospitals
Number of Nongovernment Not-for-Profit Community Hospitals
Number of Investor-Owned (For-Profit) Community Hospitals
Number of State and Local Government Community Hospitals
Number of Federal Government Hospitals
Number of Nonfederal Psychiatric Hospitals
Total Staffed Beds in All U.S. Hospitals
Staffed Beds in Community 1 Hospitals
Intensive Care Beds 3 in Community Hospitals (FY2019 data to be updated 2/21)
Total Admissions in All U.S. Hospitals
Admissions in Community 1 Hospitals
Total Expenses for All U.S. Hospitals
Expenses for Community 1 Hospitals
Number of Rural Community Hospitals
Number of Urban Community Hospitals
Number of Community Hospitals in a System 10
1. Community hospitals are defined as all nonfederal, short-term general, and other special hospitals. Other special hospitals include obstetrics and gynecology eye, ear, nose, and throat long term acute-care rehabilitation orthopedic and other individually described specialty services. Community hospitals include academic medical centers or other teaching hospitals if they are nonfederal short-term hospitals. Excluded are hospitals not accessible by the general public, such as prison hospitals or college infirmaries.
2. Other hospitals include nonfederal long term care hospitals and hospital units within an institution such as a prison hospital or school infirmary. Long term care hospitals may be defined by different methods here they include other hospitals with an average length of stay of 30 or more days.
3. Intensive care bed counts are reported on the AHA Annual Survey by approximately 80% of hospitals. Therefore, the Intensive care bed counts have been supplemented with FY2018 data reported in the CMS Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS). Total intensive care beds are not summed because the care provided is specialized. Fast Facts will be updated with FY2019 ICU bed counts in February 2021.
4. Medical-surgical intensive care. Provides patient care of a more intensive nature than the usual medical and surgical care, on the basis of physicians’ orders and approved nursing care plans. These units are staffed with specially trained nursing personnel and contain monitoring and specialized support equipment for patients who because of shock, trauma or other life-threatening conditions require intensified comprehensive observation and care. Includes mixed intensive care units.
5. Cardiac intensive care. Provides patient care of a more specialized nature than the usual medical and surgical care, on the basis of physicians’ orders and approved nursing care plans. The unit is staffed with specially trained nursing personnel and contains monitoring and specialized support or treatment equipment for patients who, because of heart seizure, open-heart surgery, or other life-threatening conditions, require intensified, comprehensive observation and care. May include myocardial infarction, pulmonary care, and heart transplant units.
6. Neonatal intensive care. A unit that must be separate from the newborn nursery providing intensive care to all sick infants including those with the very lowest birth weights (less than 1500 grams). NICU has potential for providing mechanical ventilation, neonatal surgery, and special care for the sickest infants born in the hospital or transferred from another institution. A full-time neonatologist serves as director of the NICU.
7. Pediatric intensive care. Provides care to pediatric patients that is of a more intensive nature than that usually provided to pediatric patients. The unit is staffed with specially trained personnel and contains monitoring and specialized support equipment for treatment of patients who, because of shock, trauma, or other life-threatening conditions, require intensified, comprehensive observation and care.
8. Burn care. Provides care to severely burned patients. Severely burned patients are those with any of the following: (1) second-degree burns of more than 25% total body surface area for adults or 20% total body surface area for children: (2) third-degree burns of more than 10% total body surface area (3) any severe burns of the hands, face, eyes, ears, or feet or (4) all inhalation injuries, electrical burns, complicated burn injuries involving fractures and other major traumas, and all other poor risk factors.
9. Other intensive care. A specially staffed, specialty equipped, separate section of a hospital dedicated to the observation, care, and treatment of patients with life-threatening illnesses, injuries, or complications from which recovery is possible. It provides special expertise and facilities for the support of vital function and utilizes the skill of medical nursing and other staff experienced in the management of these problems.
10. System is defined by AHA as either a multihospital or a diversified single hospital system. A multihospital system is two or more hospitals owned, leased, sponsored, or contract managed by a central organization. Single, freestanding hospitals may be categorized as a system by bringing into membership three or more, and at least 25 percent, of their owned or leased non-hospital pre-acute or post-acute health care organizations. System affiliation does not preclude network participation.
© 2021 by Health Forum LLC, an affiliate of the American Hospital Association