When were the baskets invented in Australia and America?

When were the baskets invented in Australia and America?

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Since the human migration to Australia and America took place way before the invention of the baskets and both the pre-colonized Aborigens and Native Americans were using baskets, that means they invented the technology on their own.

And then the question is: when did they invent it?

According to The Art of Native American Basketry: A Living Legacy by Frank Porter, Native American basketry began between 7000 BC and 5000 BC:

The beginning of this craft occurred between the years 5000 and 7000 B.C. That seed and nut gatherers of the Great Basin started basketry is evidenced at Hogup Cave, Utah, where 160 fragments of baskets were found, some of them rigid pieces of twining (Adavasio 1970, 183).


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basketball, game played between two teams of five players each on a rectangular court, usually indoors. Each team tries to score by tossing the ball through the opponent’s goal, an elevated horizontal hoop and net called a basket.

What is basketball?

Basketball is a game played between two teams of five players each on a rectangular court, usually indoors. Each team tries to score by tossing the ball through the opponent’s goal, an elevated horizontal hoop and net called a basket.

When was basketball invented?

Basketball was invented by James Naismith on or about December 1, 1891, at the International Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) Training School, Springfield, Massachusetts, where Naismith was an instructor in physical education. Basketball is the only major sport strictly of U.S. origin (although Naismith was born in Canada).

How does basketball exercise your body?

Basketball is a dynamic sport that builds stamina from the short sprints required of running up and down the length of the court. Movements distinct to basketball, such as jumping to take a shot or to grab a rebound, require frequent muscle contractions, which can build muscular endurance. Additional weight training is recommended for basketball players in order to improve their performance on the court.

Where is basketball popular outside of the United States?

The success of international basketball was greatly advanced by the inclusion of men’s basketball in the Olympic Games beginning in 1936. Basketball has caught on particularly well in Italy, and Spain has several basketball leagues. The other major centre of European basketball is eastern Europe, particularly in the Balkans.

What was the influence of television on basketball?

Basketball grew steadily but slowly in popularity and importance in the United States and internationally in the first three decades after World War II (1939–45) as a result of television exposure. However, with the advent of cable television, the game’s popularity exploded at all levels, especially during the 1980s.

The only major sport strictly of U.S. origin, basketball was invented by James Naismith (1861–1939) on or about December 1, 1891, at the International Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) Training School (now Springfield College), Springfield, Massachusetts, where Naismith was an instructor in physical education.

For that first game of basketball in 1891, Naismith used as goals two half-bushel peach baskets, which gave the sport its name. The students were enthusiastic. After much running and shooting, William R. Chase made a midcourt shot—the only score in that historic contest. Word spread about the newly invented game, and numerous associations wrote Naismith for a copy of the rules, which were published in the January 15, 1892, issue of the Triangle, the YMCA Training School’s campus paper.

While basketball is competitively a winter sport, it is played on a 12-month basis—on summer playgrounds, in municipal, industrial, and church halls, in school yards and family driveways, and in summer camps—often on an informal basis between two or more contestants. Many grammar schools, youth groups, municipal recreation centres, churches, and other organizations conduct basketball programs for youngsters of less than high school age. Jay Archer, of Scranton, Pennsylvania, introduced “biddy” basketball in 1950 for boys and girls under 12 years of age, the court and equipment being adjusted for size.

Where Basketball Originated

It was the winter of 1891-1892. Inside a gymnasium at Springfield College (then known as the International YMCA Training School), located in Springfield, Mass., was a group of restless college students. The young men had to be there they were required to participate in indoor activities to burn off the energy that had been building up since their football season ended. The gymnasium class offered them activities such as marching, calisthenics, and apparatus work, but these were pale substitutes for the more exciting games of football and lacrosse they played in warmer seasons.

What are the 13 original rules of basketball?

Naismith first started his task by listing the original 13 rules of basketball. There would be two teams. One on each side of the gym. Each team would have nine players on it.

There would be two peach baskets hung up from the balcony. There would be one on each side of the gym. The player who runs with the ball throws the ball to teammates or into the basket.

The teams would use a football to shoot into the peach baskets. The ball would be thrown or hit in the basket. Each time a player scored, the game stopped. Someone will have to take a ladder and pick up the ball from the baskets.

The news of this game spread across the other YMCA schools, and suddenly it became a sport played in high schools. Basketball was soon played everywhere.

The first men’s basketball game was in 1895. This game was between the Minnesota School of Agriculture and Hamline College. In 1896, the first women’s match was UCBerkeley vs. Stanford. The first professional league was founded in 1898.

Trick-or-Treating in the United States

Children dressed up for Halloween in Jersey City, NJ.

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Some American colonists celebrated Guy Fawkes Day, and in the mid-19th century, large numbers of new immigrants, especially those fleeing the Irish Potato Famine in the 1840s, helped popularize Halloween. 

In the early 20th century, Irish and Scottish communities revived the Old World traditions of souling and guising in the United States. By the 1920s, however, pranks had become the Halloween activity of choice for rowdy young people. 

The Great Depression exacerbated the problem, with Halloween mischief often devolving into vandalism, physical assaults and sporadic acts of violence. One theory suggests that excessive pranks on Halloween led to the widespread adoption of an organized, community-based trick-or-treating tradition in the 1930s. This trend was abruptly curtailed, however, with the outbreak of World War II, when sugar rationing meant there were few treats to hand out.ਊt the height of the postwar baby boom, trick-or-treating reclaimed its place among other Halloween customs. It quickly became standard practice for millions of children in America’s cities and newly built suburbs. No longer constrained by sugar rationing, candy companies capitalized on the lucrative ritual, launching national advertising campaigns specifically aimed at Halloween. 

Today, Americans spend an estimated $2.6 billion on candy on Halloween, according to the National Retail Federation, and the day, itself, has become the nation’s second-largest commercial holiday.

Basketball in America: A History

An American game that has traveled well is basketball, now played by more than 250 million people worldwide in an organized fashion, as well as by countless others in "pick-up" games. Basketball originated in 1891 when a future Presbyterian minister named James Naismith (1861-1939) was assigned to teach a physical education class at a Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) training school in Springfield, Massachusetts. The class had been noted for being disorderly, and Naismith was told to invent a new game to keep the young men occupied. Since it was winter and very cold outside, a game that could be played indoors was desirable.

Naismith thought back to his boyhood in Canada, where he and his friends had played "duck on a rock," which involved trying to knock a large rock off a boulder by throwing smaller rocks at it. He also recalled watching rugby players toss a ball into a box in a gymnasium. He had the idea of nailing up raised boxes into which players would attempt to throw a ball. When boxes couldn't be found, he used peach baskets. According to Alexander Wolff, in his book 100 Years of Hoops, Naismith drew up the rules for the new game in "about an hour." Most of them still apply in some form today.

Basketball caught on because graduates of the YMCA school traveled widely, because Naismith disseminated the rules freely, and because there was a need for a simple game that could be played indoors during winter. Naismith's legacy included the first great college basketball coach, Forrest "Phog" Allen (1885-1974), who played for Naismith at the University of Kansas and went on to win 771 games as a coach at Kansas himself. Among Allen's star players was Wilt Chamberlain, who became one of professional basketball's first superstars -- one night in 1962, he scored a record 100 points in a game.

The first professional basketball league was formed in 1898 players earned $2.50 for home games, $1.25 for games on the road. Not quite 100 years later, Juwan Howard, a star player for the Washington Bullets (now called the Washington Wizards), had competing offers of more than $100 million over seven seasons from the Bullets and the Miami Heat.

Many teams in the National Basketball Association now have foreign players, who return home to represent their native countries during the Olympic Games. The so-called Dream Team, made up of the top American professional basketball players, has represented the United States in recent Olympic Games. In 1996 the Dream Team trailed some opponents until fairly late in the games?an indication of basketball's growing international status. In Athens in 2004 Argentina took home the gold, the first time a Latin American country won the basketball honor.

Masks Were Made of Gauze or Even More Porous Material

Women working for the Red Cross make masks during the pandemic flu in 1918.

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In 1918, advanced masks like the N95s that healthcare workers use today were a long way off. Surgical masks were made of gauze, and many people’s flu masks were made of gauze too. Red Cross volunteers made and distributed many of these, and newspapers carried instructions for those who may want to make a mask for themselves or donate some to the troops. Still, not everyone used the standard surgical design or material.

“To entice people to get them to wear them, [cities] were pretty lax in terms of what people could wear,” says J. Alex Navarro, assistant director of the Center for the History of Medicine at the University of Michigan and one of the editors-in-chief of The American Influenza Epidemic of 1918-1919: A Digital Encyclopedia.

In October 1918, the Seattle Daily Times carried the headline “Influenza Veils Set New Fashion: Seattle Women Wearing Fine Mesh With Chiffon Border to Ward Off Malady.” These �shionable” masks and others made from dubious material probably weren’t helping much. Yet there was also debate within the medical and scientific community about whether multiple-ply gauze masks were effective either.

For instance, Detroit health commissioner J.W. Inches said gauze masks were too porous to prevent the spread of the flu among the public. Also, masks are most effective when worn properly, which wasn’t always what happened. In Phoenix, where most people apparently complied with the city’s mask order, some nonetheless poked holes in their masks to smoke—which greatly reduced their effectiveness.

The Comprehensive History of Flower Arranging

Ancient Egyptian floristry is one of the four types of historical floristry that make up the Classical Period of design style. It was discovered through wall and tomb decorations and artefacts mainly, that ancient Egyptians, particularly the Royals made extensive use out of flower, fruit and foliage arrangements styled in baskets and vases. They arranged and even cultivated roses, acacia, violets, poppies, violets, jasmine, Madonna lilies and narcissus, but one flower was held in the highest regard. The Lotus Blossom was considered sacred in ancient Egyptian culture, as they believed its yellow centre and white petals signified Ra, the Sun God. The Lotus Blossom was found mainly in ornate floral burial tributes and throughout art and paintings of the time.

Characteristics of Egyptian floral design include using orderly, alternating patterns. The patterns were always highly stylised, simplistic and repetitious. The ancient Egyptians always placed flowers, foliage and fruits in spouted vases with no visible stems, or around the edge of the vase about two inches above the rim. Their flowers and foliage were always set in regimented rows, with every blossom flanked by leaves or buds on lower stems. The whole look was very put together and proper, with no bunching or overlapping of the material, and smart stem supports built into the top of the containers.

The Greek Period ca. 600 BCE – 46 BCE

The ancient Greeks used flowers and floral design in an entirely different way, and across all levels of their civilisation. They were so dedicated to the beauty and heritage of their floristry that many Greek Period floral traditions exist today. Three linchpin designs from the Classical Greek Period of floristry are the garland, the wreath, and the Horn of Plenty or Cornucopia. Flowers were frequently and plentifully worn in ladies’ hair, and lovers exchanged small, perfumed wreaths to each other. Unique garlands and wreaths were presented as important religious tributes to Olympians and military heroes, too, but on festival days, everyone got to wear wreaths. In fact, the design and etiquette involved with the wearing of wreaths in ancient Greek society were so important that there were special officially designated designers, and a set of rules was even written. On the Greek Islands, different native herbs were included in the garlands and everyday floral arrangements.

Image credit: By Georgius Jacobus Johannes van Os – Still Life with Flowers in a Greek Vase, Irina,(CC BY 2.0)

In Classical Greek design, the piece’s colour was never as important as the fragrance, type of flowers used and symbolism associated with them. Often, particular arrangements were created to honour a god or hero. Classical Greek arrangements include flowers like hyacinths, honeysuckle, roses, lilies, tulips, larkspur and marigolds. Herbs that were frequently included were rosemary, flowering basil and thyme.

The Roman Period ca. 28 BCE – 325 AD

When the ancient Romans came onto the scene they took the free-spirited and abundant qualities of Greek floristry and infused their own regal, elaborate design aspects best represented by the tapered olive crowns of the Roman emperors. Where the Greeks and Egyptians filled baskets with fruits and arrangements, the Ancient Romans used flowers – and lots of them. They also kept the Greeks’ garlands, wreaths and crowns, but changed the style up a bit. Wreaths, crowns and garlands made showier with the addition of new and exotic flowers like the crocus, oleander, myrtle, amaranth, ivy, narcissi and Laurel brought on by the extreme rise in trade. That same rise in trade brought with it the Egyptian style of using vases in floral arrangements, which the Romans took and adopted, naturally.

The art of floristry didn’t exactly evolve during the Classical Roman Period as the ancient Romans were concerned more with opulence and excess. That said, there were a couple of things the ancient Romans successfully added to our overall floral heritage and traditions: the tradition of “Dies Rosationis,” the tradition of placing roses on caskets in remembrance of those who’ve passed – these days continued by tossing single roses as well as rose sprays and “Sub Rosa,” the Roman custom of hanging an all-white wreath of roses from the ceiling to signify everything said below will be kept secret.

The Byzantine Period ca. 320 AD – 600 AD

Byzantine Period floral design marks the final period in Classical floral design, but it goes out with a bang. The Byzantines picked up where the Romans left off, resulting in fantastic, symmetrical designs that made frequent use of elaborate containers with pointed bases and tree-like compositions that were actually exquisite floral design. If you compare the Byzantine style of floral design to what’s seen in the classic child’s fairy tale Alice in Wonderland, you wouldn’t be too far off.

The Byzantines took garlands and changed the construction, forming more of a narrow foliage band on which they’d alternate flowers and fruits. In addition to perfectly shaped and manicured compositions, the Byzantines were said to have added the Espalier to our collective floral heritage. The Espalier was a new type of stylised tree, conical in shape with perfectly spaced clusters of fruits or flowers attached to its “branches.”

The Middle Ages 476 AD – 1400 AD

Enter the Middle Ages, a time where all we know about the art of floristry was mostly gleaned from large tapestries. It was a dark time and the only people who really practised floristry were European monks. The primary use of floral arrangements during this period was at churches in the forms of wreaths, garlands and vase arrangements. What we know about the styling we learned from Persian rugs, tapestries and art. From this art we learned that flowers went back to being arranged in vases during the Middle Ages, and not just any vases, flowers were arranged in Chinese flasks. Other than the signs of Chinese influence in Middle Age floral design, we know little else about the designs of this period.

The floral arts didn’t die during the Middle Ages, more like it went into hibernation, preparing itself for the cultural explosion of the European Periods. As the monks in Europe tended to their gardens, they were also increasing the different types and cultures of flowers that would be used in floral design moving forward.

The Renaissance Period 1400 AD – 1600 AD

The Renaissance Period marks the beginning of the European Periods of floral design. The Renaissance style of floral design began in Italy, taking the classical Greek, Byzantine, and Roman styles as its basis and running with them. In classic Roman-style excess, people of the Renaissance Period enjoyed floral arrangements with large masses of flowers they even hung long garlands of fruits, blossoms and leaves from the vaulted ceilings of cathedrals and on walls. Common flowers and foliage of the Renaissance Period include roses and Primroses, olive and ivy branches, daisies, lilies, Lily of the Valley, violets and laurel dianthus.

Bright, contrasting colours in a triadic colour scheme were the fashion and arrangements were usually placed in huge, heavy containers. Despite all that, floral arrangements of the Renaissance Period still had an open and airy feel. In fact, many churches and large stage buildings still use Renaissance Period floral design as a basis for their own arrangements today. Another significant addition that the Renaissance Period gave to our floral heritage is the classic Christmas wreath popularised by the Renaissance painter Luca Della Robbia, made of fruit, flowers and cones.

The Baroque and Flemish Periods 1600 AD – 1775 AD

After the Renaissance Period, flower arranging as an art form had still not been officially established, thus, it was the painters who set the floral design styles. It was the Italian artist Michelangelo who took flower arranging and transitioned it into the Baroque Period. Most floral designs were tall and massive, using many flowers of an unrestrained colour palette, with the shape of the arrangements tending to be oval and symmetrical – perfect painting vignettes, no? The use of accessories like fans, birds and butterflies were also included to make for a full composition. Despite the aesthetic design liberties that were taken during this period, one significant new technique was developed: curved designs, specifically the C (curved) and S (Hogarth) shapes. The curved floral design takes an otherwise undefinable mass of flowers and transforms it into a more graceful and elegant appearance, giving more options to the designer in the process.

As Michelangelo’s works and teachings travelled across Europe, they stuck particularly fast in Holland and Belgium (called Flanders). That’s when the Flemish style of art and floral design took hold and ran in parallel with the Baroque – when other masters like Homes began playing with the seeds Michelangelo planted. Particularly prominent in the Flemish style of floral design is the increase of an artist taking liberties paintings used inconceivable curves and improbable floral stems, they often paired flowers together in pieces that would never be found in the natural world. Flemish floral design used many more accessories, upping the ante with stuffed birds and nests with eggs. Still, despite Flemish floral designs being more massed, they were more compact with a better sense of proportion. Arrangements of these periods were large and flamboyant, including flowers like the iris, peony, marigold, hollyhock, and of course, the rose.

(English) – The Georgian Period ca. 1714 AD – 1837 AD

The Georgian Period of flower design is brief and distinctly English in that it was birthed from feudalism when, in the 15th and 16th Centuries, the collective fortresses in England gave way to smaller ruling homes. These houses had fresh flowers brought in every day for their fragrance, not their beauty. Because flower arrangements in the first half of this period were born of function, not form, many arrangements were nothing more than bunches of flowers crammed into whatever sturdy container, with no mind for design. Flower containers from this period are mostly boxes with holes punched at certain angles to hold flower stems just so.

(English) – The Victorian Era ca. 1837 AD – 1901 AD

Following the English vein of flower arrangement and design, the Victorian Era was named after Queen Victoria and marked by a period of design showcasing full elaborate arrangements. The upper class of society would frequently use flower arrangements to show off their wealth at parties, ordering excessive, opulent and overdone arrangements for their homes. Victorian Era-flower arrangements were typically round or oval in shape, used lots of foliage, and kept their flowers restrained to a lower height. Victorian ladies preferred strong colour contrasts and brilliant hues. Victorian-era flower arrangements with fruit in them differed in that the fruit was added because it came from the same garden as the flowers.

The Victorian Era was also the first time anyone tried to establish official floristry rules. It was a time of prim-and-proper society, with privileged ladies and their daughters cultivating and creating arrangements weekly, and tussie-mussie and nosegay bouquets becoming a necessity at every social gathering. Victorians also spoke the language of the flowers, giving single-flower bouquets to convey specific meanings, hearkening back to the Classical Greek period. Gifts of chrysanthemum bouquets mean love while a red carnation means the feelings aren’t mutual.

(French) The French Baroque Period ca. 1600 AD – 1750 AD

The French style of floral art was influenced not by painters, but by politicians. Specifically, politicians who wanted to show more feminine appeal via colour and size of the flowers used, but little thought was given to the design otherwise. The French Baroque period of floristry is marked by the introduction of the topiary and a symmetrical design style with no focal point. Floral designs and arrangements were more casual, fragile and delicate. Floral designs of this time fit perfectly into a home with a French Country design style.

(French) The French Rococo Period ca. 1750 AD – 1785 AD

Rococo means rock and shell and is a tribute to the period’s gentle arcs and graceful designs. The French Rococo Period is the invention of Antoinette Poisson, mistress of Louis XV, and was more formal, adding more feminine colours and airy design features. The arrangements of this period were predominantly crescent-shaped and designed to look open and light.

(French) Louis XVI ca. 1785 AD – 1800 AD

During the short reign of Louis XVI, Marie Antoinette was able to further the feminine design trend of flower arranging, lessening the use of lavish containers and increasing the use of cooler colours like light purples, lavenders and whites, and more delicate flowers. This was right before the French Revolution and the revival of the heavier Classical Period that would follow.

(French) The Empire Period ca. 1804 AD – 1814 AD

With the French Revolution came the Empire Period and a revival of the Classical Period. Nowhere was the influence greater than in France under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte. Flower arrangements of this period were strictly militaristic in theme and masculine in quality. Bonaparte ordered femininity to be dropped from the French design, resulting in Empire Period arrangements that were massive in size and weight and had large and garish symbols of the Empire, such as Napoleon’s trademark “N,” the bee, lion or Empire star. Arrangements of the Empire Period frequently had containers constructed to resemble lions and beehives, while the flower arrangements themselves were simple and triangular in shape.

The Early American Period ca. 1620 AD – 1720 AD

In the beginning, American floral design was birthed from necessity. Early colonists grew plants for food and medicinal purposes. They didn’t have much spare time to play around with floristry, but when they did their arrangements were modest and simple, perfect complements to adorn their modest homes. Not surprisingly, flowers were used as decoration mainly in the central and southern colonial areas where the weather permitted. Floral designs of the time were copied mostly from the English Georgian and French Empire Periods.

The Colonial Williamsburg Period ca. 1740 AD – 1780 AD

As the American Colonial Period began, flower design started to evolve, slowly. Mass arrangements were still assembled using a bunch of colours, but Colonial Williamsburg was best known for its flower arrangements in finger vases and flower bricks. The English and European roots of flower design began to take a deeper hold, with Americans favouring Georgian and French designs that they made more symmetrical and sophisticated. Triangular flower arrangements and fanned groupings at the top were preferred, sometimes stretching to three times the height of the container!

The Federal Period ca. 1780 AD – 1820 AD

This was a period in floral design that Americans began to break out of the mould and develop their own flower stylings. Overseas in Europe, the Neoclassic and Empire styles were popular and had a great influence on the American stylings. The result was American Period floral arrangements that used fewer masses of bouquets in favour of showcasing the charm of individual flowers. As a result, fewer flowers were used in containers and more attention was paid to the beauty of the arrangement.

The American Victorian Period ca. 1820 AD – 1920 AD

The American Victorian period coincided with the European Victorian period, with certain marked European techniques spilling over across the pond. Most noticeably, ornate containers made of different kinds of materials were used, often overflowing with flowers and the containers themselves were usually white or another cool colour. The arrangements themselves tended to be made in rich, royal purples, magentas, and deep dark blues. The Tuzzy-Muzzy enjoyed especial popularity, especially in the Deep South.

The Modern (Contemporary) Periods ca. 1890 AD – 2000 AD

American Contemporary flower design went through quite a few different stages, none lasting more than twenty years or so.
The Art Nouveau Period from 1890 -1910 was known for arrangements that were based on curvilinear lines, often patterned after nature in the shape of plants and flowers. The containers that were used were carved and asymmetrical.

  • The Art Deco Period took place in the 1920s and lasted until the 1930s. It was a style of floristry influenced by the Ancient Egyptians, jazz music, and the industrial age. Art Deco flower arrangements are characterised by the use of strong patterns and geometric lines. Corsages also became quite popular during this time. Like most good things, this style came back into popularity around the 1960s.
  • Free Form Expression began in the 1950s and lasted until the 1960s. As America’s social scene and culture began to change arrangements changed with it, becoming more expressive with feelings, movement and freedom. Different design materials were used, and their textural differences highlighted, creating flower arrangements that looked more like art than nature.
  • Geometric Mass Design took place during the 1960s and 1970s. During this time, tight, geometric bouquets were commonplace and arrangements started to combine mass with lines, resulting in rather stiff looking patterns and arrangements in compote containers. This style of floral design mimics the Oriental styles, in that clean-cut sculptural design is of utmost importance.

Chinese and Japanese Floral Design History

The Chinese and Japanese had a much heavier influence on flower design in the Americas than the Europeans did. Not surprising when you consider that the Chinese have been making flower arrangements since as far back as 207 BCE!

Chinese floral design during this period (the Han Period) was used as an integral component in religious teachings and medicine. Buddhists, Taoists and practitioners of Confucianism all traditionally placed cut flowers on their altars. However, since Buddhist teachings forbade the taking of lie, Buddhist monks would cut flowers and plants sparingly, using certain flowers and leaves to make basket arrangements based on particular symbolic meanings.

/>Japanese floral design, called Ikebana, has been around since at least the 7th century, travelling with the Buddhists into the snowy mountains of Japan. Ikebana embraces minimalism, using a sparse amount of blooms spaced out between stalks and leaves. The structure of Japanese Ikebana floral arrangements is based on a scalene triangle, which many believe to symbolise heaven, earth and man. In other schools of thought, the scalene triangle is considered to represent the sun, moon and earth. Either way, twigs or branches usually delineate the triangle. Japanese flower containers are almost as important as the structure of the arrangement and were traditionally made from pottery.


Just like every other art form, floral design is in a constant state of growth. Both traditional and line mass arrangements continue to be important in modern design and decoration. Flower arranging has come a long way from the early periods. Thanks to the thousands of flower hybrids and growing techniques, flowers that used to be only available in season are now available all year round. Materials like Floral Foam, shaping wire, and individual water phials give us unlimited ways to create beautiful floral arrangements that can last longer than ever before. For a look at today’s flower arranging, check out

For a look at today’s flower arranging, check out www.flowersacrossmelbourne.com.au and if you want to see how far we can go with modern floral design then you must see the best in the business, check out our post on Todays most influential Floral Designers

A History of flower arrangement by Julia S. Berril. (1968)
Floriculture: Designing & Merchandising” by Charles Griner. (2000)
The Art of Floral Design: Second Edition” by Norah T. Hunter (2000)
The History of Flower Arranging, book by Pamela McNicol and Dorothy Cook (1989)

Minutes and seconds in the 14th – 16th century

Distinguishing the 24 hours in a solar cycle alone was no longer satisfactory as the 14th century continued to progress. Soon people desired a more precise measurement of time. Dials were designed to meet this desire. Once dials were applied to the face of clocks in the 14th century, people were able to distinguish minutes. During the Middle Ages, scales were developed as tools of scientific measurement based on the number 60. Going beyond that, in Medieval Latin, there was an even smaller unit of measurement: 1/16th known as pars minuta prima (first very small part). There was also a further sixtieth of that measurement called second pars minute secunda(very small part). Thus the concept of the second was born.

History of Victorian Basketball

Victoria was the first state to establish an association, in 1931 (the Victorian Basketball Association, or VBA). The association consisted of the following members: YMCA, Church of England, Military, and Presbyterian Church. South Australia was the next association formed in 1936, and soon after followed by New South Wales in 1938. After the Second World War, associations were formed in the remaining states – Queensland, Western Australia and Tasmania. Initially, church and army drill halls were used as venues, but their limited availability, due to the many other functions the halls served, prevented maximum use of these facilities. This greatly restricted the development of the sport in the early stages.

Formation of the Amateur Basketball Union of Australia

In 1939, the National Federation of Basketball was formed – this became known as the Amateur Basketball Union of Australia (the governing body for basketball in Australia). This body did not become fully effective until 1946, when the first Australian Championships were held. The objectives of the Amateur Basketball Union were to promote, encourage and control the game of basketball throughout Australia to coordinate and supervise National Championships to select and manage teams to represent Australia and to deal with any issues that affected Australian basketball at the national level.

In 1949 Australian became the fifty-second affiliated member of the International Amateur Basketball Federation (FIBA) which governs amateur basketball throughout the world. This world governing body was created to satisfy the following objectives:

  • To establish uniformity of the rules to be used in international and Olympic competitions.
  • To establish uniform standard on the dimensions and construction of basketball courts.
  • To establish the playing qualifications for players in teams taking part in Olympic and international competitions.
  • To establish the form of competition to be developed in Olympic competitions.
  • The inclusion of a native referee in the delegations of each country in order to control international or Olympic matches.
  • To adopt French, English and Spanish as official languages in international congresses and correspondence.
  • Mutual obligations to apply agreed sanctions to affiliated bodies.
  • To rule that member countries may not engage in international matches with non-member countries.
  • To establish rules for an international federation devoted solely to basketball.
  • To establish the definition of an amateur.

History of Basketball Coaching in Australia

In the Victorian Championships played during the 1930s, Ivor Burge, who had completed a physical education degree at Springfield, Massachusetts, coached the leading team YMCA. He introduced several new concepts of the game to the Victorian coaches. One concept in particular, the zone defence, was a characteristic trait of all his teams. During the war, American servicemen participated in many Victorian competitions, and their style of play influenced a movement back towards principles of man-to-man defence.

In 1949, many European migrants from Lithuania, Latvia and Hungary came to Australia, and advanced the general standard of play. Leon Baltrunis introduced the techniques of screening and the use of the weave, which was popular in the early 50’s. Also, several outstanding American Mormon teams played at this time. The Mormon coach, De Lyle Condie, from the University of Utah, indicated what could be done with a well-organised offensive pattern. His team played a practice match against the Russian Olympic team prior to the Olympic Games in 1956, and were level with just one minute to play. Also, at this same time, jump shooting became the new trend, and Bob Skousen of Brigham Young University was a great jump shooter for young players to emulate.

The game of basketball has grown through the efforts of two additional Australians – Ken Watson and Lindsay Gaze. Both men recognised the importance of a well-organised offence, and instilled this philosophy in their junior and senior teams. As a result, their teams have been very successful, and they have provided a model for other coaches in formulating their own philosophies of the game.

Australia’s first basketball coach for the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne was Ken Watson (at the time, Ken was very active in coaching junior and senior players in Victoria he was the state senior men’s coach at the time as well as secretary for both the Victorian Association and the Amateur Basketball Union of Australia). His teams ran the shuffle offence with great success, which added another dimension to the game. Ken gave a great deal of credit to the American coaches Bruce Drake (early originator of the shuffle offence) and Joe Eves (Auburn coach) for playing an important role in developing his theories on the shuffle offence.

In 1958, Albert Park Basketball Stadium was opened, and this facility became the headquarters for basketball in Victoria, even though the game was played in many different venues throughout the state. Lindsay Gaze was appointed the stadium manager, and at the time was very active in coaching junior teams within the Church of England Association. He was involved in coaching U18 and U16 state teams during the early 1960s. Also, Lindsay was later to represent Australia as a player in the Olympic Games in 1960, 1964 and 1968. He was appointed the Olympic basketball coach in 1972, 1976, 1980 and 1984. (Ken Watson and Lindsay Gaze have played very active roles in promoting and teaching basketball, not only in Victoria, but throughout Australia.)

In 1961 two American coaches, John Bunn and Stu Inman, were invited to Australia to conduct coaching clinics on the various facets of the game. Apart from the direct instruction in offence and defence, they emphasised the important point that junior and senior teams simply did not practice enough. At that time it was usual for the leading Victorian teams to practice only once per week, although the team members might play several matches per week in various competitions. Efforts were made to increase practices to four times per week, although many teams found this difficult to achieve. (By practising throughout the year, it was hoped to make up for the inability to have a daily practice program during the main season.) A program of exchange visits between the US teams (high school as well as college) and Australian teams has been beneficial in showing Australian coaches different methods of play and approaches to coaching.

Albert Park Basketball Stadium 1958-1997

The history of Victorian basketball dates back to around 1905, when the first recorded information on basketball being played in Melbourne shows that men and women were playing the sport first invented by James Naismith in 1891 at Springfield University in Massachusetts. Graduates of the YMCA College propagated the game around the world and it quickly became an international sport, first being played in the Olympic Games in 1936, five years after the formation of FIBA, the International Federation of Basketball Associations and coincidentally the formation of the Victorian Basketball Association.

The Second World War reduced participation rates and it wasn’t until 1946 that the first Australian Basketball Championship was held. During this time basketball was played in small church halls, army drill halls and community centres with the best locations being the Exhibition Buildings, the YMCA in Melbourne and the Hall of Industries at the Showgrounds.

The 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne provided the first opportunity for the construction of a venue specific for basketball and the VBA pressed the Olympic Games Organising Committee to build on a site offered by the Education Department, but the proposal was rejected. Instead, the Committee built an annexe to the Exhibition Buildings, which subsequently was of no use to the VBA.

However, the associations did collect some revenue for a building fund and claimed the playing court and backboards from the Exhibition Buildings. After years of frustration without headquarters for basketball and being bumped in and out of the Exhibition Buildings and Showgrounds, the VBA finally completed plans for a two-court stadium in Northcote. A partnership was then formed between the Business Houses Association, Olympic Association and Church of England Association and the VABA Cooperative Community Society (later to be known as Basketball Stadiums Victoria). The first directors were Harold Pickett, Ron Cutts, Jim Marchbank, Jack Carter and Ken Watson.

This was a solid, hardworking group determined to make a business success of the new venture. However, just as they were about to sign the building contract, Ken Watson received a phone call from Senator Pat Kennelly, Chairman of the Albert Park Committee of Management, who proposed the conversion of one of their wartime stores buildings into a six-court basketball stadium.

The offer was hotly debated, but Ken Watson convinced his colleagues that it was too good to refuse and the VBA contributed the $40,000 it had raised for the Northcote project and built its first headquarters at Albert Park. The conversion was completed in 1958, Lindsay Gaze was appointed stadium manager and the official Opening Ceremony match between a Victoria selection and the Mormons was played on the 6 April 1959. Within a few years the Albert Park Basketball Stadium expanded to eight courts and then nine, making it the largest basketball stadium in the Southern Hemisphere.

While the American Connection has always been part of Victorian basketball, it wasn’t until 1966, when the Melbourne Tigers recruited Fred Guy, that a new wave of former US college players flooded the local scene. Until then it was the migrant boom of the 50s that brought new talent and new coaching methods to Victoria. Players like Peter Bumbers, Mintauts Raiskums, Stan Dargis, Peter Demos and the Hidy brothers (John and Les) set the standard.

Fred Guy, a 201 cm forward was the first player recruited specifically by the Tigers to boost playing standards and to assist with coaching juniors. The move proved to be dramatically successful as Guy became the leading scorer in the Victorian Championship and the Tigers also went through the 1967 season with an undefeated record. The impact that Guy had on the game prompted other clubs to follow suit and the Albert Park Stadium was identified as a major venue for top level basketball in Australia.

It was around this time that the stadium directors developed a policy of supporting the promotion of top competition and funded national invitation tournaments as well as visits by international teams. A vision of promoting a Pan Pacific Basketball Championship was overly ambitious, as one by one Asian and Pacific countries withdrew their nominations, leaving only one team from the Philippines to join top Australian clubs in the first international tournament at Albert Park in 1963. San Jose State University was the first US college team to visit Australia in 1965 and many great college teams have followed since then.

Even in an era when top games are played in venues like Melbourne Park, fans still say that the atmosphere at the Albert Park Stadium was something special. Among the special visits to Albert Park were the Big Ten Conference All Stars in 1971, which included future NBA stars such as Jim Brewer, Kevin Kunnert, Clarence Sherrod and Bill Franklin.

The Big Ten team of 1972 also had several great players but wasn’t quite so overpowering. It was common in those days for the top US college teams to travel through Australia with undefeated records. Cincinatti and Oregon were fine teams, which went undefeated, and Kentucky lost only to the Melbourne Tigers and the national team. Kentucky returned home to finish second in the NCAA Championship the following season.

The tradition of the Albert Park Stadium hosting international matches ended on 24 May 1997, appropriately with a match between Melbourne Tigers and the Arizona Wildcats – the 1997 NCAA Champions – before a capacity crowd. The packed stadium with its typical Albert Park atmosphere, witnessed another thriller with the Tigers winning by four points in overtime.

There have also been many great teams from Europe that have visited Australia through the auspices of the Albert Park Stadium. Slavia Prague, the champion team of Czechoslovakia, brought the best of European basketball in 1996 and the visit by the Maccabi Tel Aviv club produced another thriller, which was highlighted by the antics of the Israeli referee who accompanied the team and the security guards who were more than zealous in their protection of the players.

Teams from all of the republics of the former Yugoslavia visited Albert Park during the 70s and early 80s with perhaps the most memorable being the Cibona club of Zagreb and Red Star Belgrade.

During the history of the Albert Park Stadium there have only been five chairmen of the Board of Directors – Harold Pickett, Jack Carter, Maurice Pawsey, Malcolm Speed and Henry Cooper – clearly demonstrating a remarkable stability in sports administration and business management. The policy of the Board has always been to maximise the use of the facility at the lowest possible fee for participants and spectators to support the policies of the VBA and to encourage the development of new facilities in the metropolitan and country Victoria.

After the ninth court was added to Albert Park Stadium in 1965, further expansion here was impossible and the task of convincing other municipalities to support the construction of basketball stadiums began. A two-court stadium was constructed in Coburg in 1968 and it was later expanded to three courts. The success of the Coburg stadium meant that convincing other councils was less difficult and through the 70s a mini boom in the expansion of facilities and participation took place.

The state government adopted a policy of funding municipal sports facilities and this, combined with the construction of what became known as ECCA Centres (phys ed buildings) in schools, created the largest growth rate for basketball during the decade. In almost all cases, staff of Basketball Stadiums Victoria were involved in consultation, construction and management. As the number grew there was also a need to develop facilities that could cater for larger numbers of spectators.

In 1970 an ambitious plan to develop a 5000-seat multipurpose stadium by converting the Badminton Centre, which was located adjacent to the Albert Park Basketball Stadium, was set asie when the state government was lobbied by environmentalists and other special interest groups. The plan was fully funded without requiring government subsidies, had the support of the Victorian Olympic Council and a wide range of sporting organisations which were crying out for a venue to promote their major events, the South Melbourne Council, the Albert Park Committee of Management and of course the Badminton Association. It is a matter of history that the project was rejected by the state government and according to Lindsay Gaze the decision set back the redevelopment of the sport 15 years.

In 1997 the government opened the new Melbourne Sports and Aquatic Centre (MSAC) at a cost of over $50 million. The mission to develop a 5000-seat stadium specifically for basketball remains on the agenda.

While the failure of developing a large capacity stadium was disappointing, the stadium directors maintained enthusiasm for promoting major events and supporting the construction of new facilities. National tournaments such as the Australian Club Championships were initiated and became a feature event on the calendar of many events promoted at Albert Park. Ken Watson once again showed his vision for the needs of the sport when he introduced the Melbourne Junior Classic, a club championship for U16 and U18 men and women which has evolved into the most important national club championship for junior club teams in these age groups. He then introduced the Melbourne Classic for U12 and U14 club teams for boys and girls, which is also now recognised as a national club championship for these age divisions.

The development of the Victorian Country Championships at Albert Park and subsequently Victorian Country Premierships for both seniors and juniors created new opportunities and incentives for those in country Victoria seeking higher levels of competition. Administrators and players alike recognised the Albert Park Stadium as the Mecca of basketball and the annual tournaments for each division became the highlight of their seasons.

As the headquarters of the Victorian Basketball Association, it was not surprising that the Albert Park Stadium became the focal point of the administration and the place where there seemed to be a never ending schedule of meetings. The VBA Council and Executive are at the peak of a pyramid of committees comprising volunteers who have directed basketball in Victoria from a minor sporting / recreation activity, with a registration of about 2000 participants, to major sports status with over 200,000 registered players.

There are many examples where something is not appreciated until it is no longer available. This was the case in 1987 when a fire destroyed the offices of Albert Park Stadium and much of the documented history and memorabilia was lost. For almost 12 months the administration of the VBA was conducted out of portable huts located adjacent to Court 9 and if ever there was a time to confirm the dedication and commitment of the staff to carry out their duties in adverse conditions, this was it. There was a similar disaster with the destruction by fire of the Coburg stadium in 1990 and once again the directors of Basketball Stadiums Victoria set about the task of re-construction and further development. History shows that the Albert Park Stadium provided the stimulus to get basketball moving in Victoria. Competition, coaching, administration, referee training and facility development has grown out of the vision of those original directors who set the foundation for a successful future. We did not have to wait until after it was gone to appreciate the contribution Albert Park Stadium made to Victorian and Australian basketball. The Celebration of Albert Park held on 10 July 1997 marked the end of an era and the beginning of a new and spectacularly impressive MSAC. If the next 40 years are as productive and exciting as the last, then the future of Victoria basketball is assured.

The Players

During a 40-year period it would be impossible to name all of the fine players who have featured at Albert Park and the many great games and national, international and state finals. Peter Bumbers was probably the best of the Latvians who dominated in the late 50s. He was a key player in the 1956 Olympic team and continued to star for his Daina club through 1960. In one Australian Championship match he scored 50 points missing only one shot for the game. Bill Wyatt and Lindsay Gaze virtually commenced their international careers with the opening of Albert Park Stadium and their combination provided the foundation for the Melbourne Tigers tradition of championship success. Among the former US college players who followed in the footsteps of Fred Guy, Bill Palmer, Ken James, David Lindstrom, Rocky Smith, Rocky Crosswhite and Cal Bruton would be prominent when considering the all-time greats. Bill Palmer was a graduate of Stanford University who joined the Bulleen Spectres in 1972 after a season in Canberra and together with college team mates Fred Green and Dennis O’Neill, collected state titles in 1973 and 1974. Injuries cut short Palmer’s playing career but he then went on to become a leading administrator for the VBA and the National Basketball League (NBL). Ken Cole was probably the most controversial player and coach during his era of the 60s and 70s. He played with the Melbourne East Demons in 1966 and then with Melbourne (Church) Tigers before becoming player/coach of St Kilda in 1970, when he led them to their first Championship.

David Lindstrom, a fine scoring guard from Puget Sound University put Cole out of business in the final of the 1971 grand final with some great defence ,while scoring 40 points himself and restoring the state title back to the Tigers. It was a sign of the times in 1969 when Willie Anderson, a former Harlem Globetrotter, joined the Dandenong Rangers as player/coach. He led the Championship scoring with an average of 28 points per game but upset officials by running private clinics for personal profit – he was declared a professional and banned from the competition. He subsequently tried out with North Melbourne in Australian Rules football and although he showed promise, the game was too much for him and he returned home to the United States where he continued to praise Australian basketball.

Perry ‘Rocky’ Crosswhite was a graduate of Davidson College who married one of Victoria’s star female players, Jan Steele, shortly after settling in Australia – he subsequently became a triple Olympian in 1972, 1976 and 1980. He became head of the Department of Sport and Recreation, serving for the first state Minister of Sport, Brian Dixon, Deputy Commissioner of the Australian Sports Commission, and now is CEO of Commonwealth Games Committee.

Eddie Palubinskas was the first Australian to make an impact on the college scene in the US. Originally from Canberra, Palubinskas had his first season in the Victorian Championships in 1970 where he helped St Kilda to win the title. He was the second leading scorer in the 1972 Olympics and led all scorers in the 1976 Olympics. Palubinskas accepted a scholarship to Ricks Junior College in Idaho and later transferred to Louisiana State University where he became recognised as one of the finest shooters in the country and the nation’s leading free throw percentage shooters. He was in the fifth round of the American Basketball Association (ABA) and the seventh round of the NBA draft but did not gain a contract. He held the honour of most points scored in a championship game hitting 66 for Caulfield Spartans in 1976.

Andrew Gaze also made and impact on the college scene in the US. When he played with Seton Hall University in 1989 he became the first Australian to play in the final of the NCAA Championship. He later had a brief stint with the Washington Bullets in the NBA. Like Eddie Palubinskas, Andrew Gaze was the second leading scorer in the Olympics in 1984, and the leading scorer in 1988 and 1992. A five-time Olympian, Andrew Gaze literally grew up in Albert Park Stadium and was a regular selection in the Victorian All Star team from 1984.

Michelle Timms is possibly the highest profile player in Australian womens basketball since growing up through the junior ranks of the Bulleen Association. Her exploits in Victorian Championship matches at Albert Park provided a pathway to prominence in the National League and the Australian Opals. Many people think that Michelle was the first female player to make the professional ranks in the US, playing for Phoenix Mercury in the recently formed Women’s NBA. But the Saints Jan Baker turned down a college scholarship offer in favour of accepting a spot on a team called the Dallas Diamonds, which was a member of the womens professional basketball league back in the late 70s. Court 9 at Albert Park was the main arena for the highest level of women’s basketball in Australia and players like Dandenong’s Julie Gross and Maree Jackson took their talents to the US and became recognised as among the best in the country. Jean Kupsch was the first great exponent of the jump shot while playing with the Comets alongside Elinor McKenzie, and Midge Nelson is often mentioned as being among the finest all-round female athletes Australia has produced. The next generation of Comets which included Karin Maar, Jan Smithwick and Jan Morris, maintained a long traditional rivalry with the Telstars, which included Sandra Tomlinson, Candy Ferris, Dana Polis and Gai Smith.

The Referees

The early years of Albert Park Stadium were the latter years of many referees who could only be described as pioneers of Victorian basketball. Paul Wiltshire was the first President of the Victorian Referees Association and he along with stalwarts such as Henry Perazzo, Charlie Jones, Jack Smith, Wally Patterson and Jim Boatwood provided the foundation of experience and guidance to a new army of referees required to staff the stadium seven days a week. The new referees adopted the same approach to their duties as their predecessors, accepting very modest compensation (70c per game) working six games a night and sometimes several nights per week. Stan Ingram, affectionately known as Sleepy for many years, worked five nights a week and asked stadium manager Lindsay Gaze to retain his expenses and settle with him at the end of the year. It is understood he paid off the mortgage on his home and then disappeared from the sport.

One of the most important initiatives in the 60s was the plan to invite John Bunn, the referee rules interpreter from the US, to visit Australia, and conduct referees clinics and to offer advice on administration. Bunn was also a top coach and his advice proved to be a major factor in Australian referees becoming recognised as among the best in the world. Paul Wiltshire, Charlie Jones, Henry Perazzo, John Holden, Eddie Crouch, Ray Hunt and Bill Mildenhall gained Olympic honours, while other referees such as Dick Mason and Les Dick gained international recognition. Basketball Stadiums Victoria directors supported other initiatives aimed to recruit overseas experts to assist referee development and visits by Chuck Allen (Referees Commissioner of the Big Ten Conference), Chuck Osborne and David Turner were all positive steps in maintaining Victoria as the leading state for referee development.

Textile Industry and Machinery of the Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

During this transition, hand production methods changed to machines and new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes were introduced. Water power efficiency improved and the increasing use of steam power increased. Machine tools were developed and the factory system was on the rise. Textiles were the main industry of the Industrial Revolution as far as employment, the value of output and capital invested. The textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and most of the important technological innovations were British.

The Industrial Revolution was a major turning point in history almost every aspect of daily life changed in some way. Average income and population began to grow exponentially. Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, but others have said that it did not begin to really improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. At approximately the same time the Industrial Revolution was occurring, Britain was undergoing an agricultural revolution, which also helped to improve living standards and provided surplus labor available for industry.

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