Inch DE-146 - History

Inch DE-146 - History

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(DE-146: dp. 1,200, 1. 30d'; b. 36'7", dr. 8'7"; s. 21 k.;
cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 2 40mm., 8 20mm., 2 dct., 8 dcp. 1 dcp.
(h.h.), 3 tt.; cl. Edsall)

Inch (DE-146) was laid down 19 January 1943 by Consolidated Steel Corp, Orange, Tex., launched 4 April 1943 sponsored by Mrs. Philip L. Inch, daughter in-law of Admiral Inch; and commissioned 8 September 1943, Lt. Comdr. C. W. Frey in command.

Following shakedown off Bermuda, Inch began convoy escort operations from New York to Norfolk. 13larly ih 1945 she Joined a special hunter-killer group in the Atlantic, built around escort carrier Oroatan. The ships sailed 24 March for the convoy lanes to search for German U-boats. During the months that followed, Inch took part in many attacks on submarines. On the evening of 11 June the ship, in company with Froet and ITu~e, made a contaot and proceeded to attack. After over 40 depth charges, the submafine surfaced, signalling SOS. Suspecta ruse, Inch and her companions opened fire and destroyed U-490. The entire crew of 60 German sailors was rescued by the escorts.

Soon after tho attack on U-490, the escort vousels, operating as usual in concert with aircraft from Oroatan, detected another submarine. They attacked 3 July and scored another kill, this time on U-154. Inch remained on this vital duty, so important in stopping the German submarine menace, until reaching New York 14 May 1945. She had had only brief' in-port periods the preceding year, and after repairs conducted her second shakedown out of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. With the war in the Atlantic won, Inch sailed to the Pacitic, departing the Canal Zone 23 July. She touched at San Diego and Pearl Harbor, and remained in Elawaiian waters for exercises designed to train her for the planned invasion of Japan. Soon after her arrival 12 August, however, the capitulation was announced.

AMer completing training and readiness exercises, Inch sailed 5 September for Norfolk, via the Panama Canal, and arrived 28 September 1945. She decommissioned 17 May 1946, entered the Atlantic Reserve Fleet, and is now berthed at Norfolk.

Inch received four battle stars for World War II service.

Ringling Bros. circus closing after 146 years

AP Exclusive: The Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus will end 'The Greatest Show on Earth' in May, following a 146-year run. The AP learned declining attendance combined with high operating costs are among the reasons for closing. (Jan. 14)

The "Greatest Show on Earth" is getting its curtain call. Feld Entertainment, owner of the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus said in a statement that the show will end is 146-year run in May.

The iconic circus declined in recent years due to high operating costs and long, costly legal battles with animal rights groups, such as the one to eliminate elephant acts. Ticket sales had already fallen, but they dropped more significantly than anticipated after the elephants were retired last May, according to the statement.

The company's two circus shows, Out of This World and Circus Xtreme, have 30 shows left, including appearances in Atlanta, Brooklyn and Boston. The final shows are May 7 at the Dunkin' Donuts Center in Providence, R.I., and May 21 at the Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale, N.Y.

"This was a difficult business decision to make, but by ending the circus tours, we will be able to concentrate on the other lines of business within the Feld Entertainment portfolio," said Juliette Feld, chief operating officer. "Now that we have made this decision, as a company, and as a family, we will strive to support our circus performers and crew in making the transition to new opportunities."

The company broke the news to circus employees Saturday night after shows in Orlando and Miami, The Associated Press reported.

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, a major critic of the circus for its treatment of animals, celebrated the announcement.

After 36 years of PETA protests, which showed the world the plight of animal captivity, PETA heralds the end of the saddest show on earth.

&mdash PETA (@peta) January 15, 2017

The announcement means most of the shows' 500 or so employees will be left without work, the AP reported. Feld said some will be transferred to the some of the company's more profitable shows like Monster Jam, Disney on Ice and Marvel Live!, and that it will help with job placement, resumes and, in some cases, housing relocation.

Before Feld Entertainment, there was Phineas Taylor Barnum's traveling show of animals and human oddities, and the five Ringling brothers' juggling act and skits in Wisconsin in the late 1800s. They merged and performed across the country, traveling by train (some still do, to this day). The Feld family bought the Ringling circus in 1967.

At its prime, the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus was considered a family-friendly outing. But the shows lost their appeal toward the end of the 20th century, CEO Kenneth Feld told the AP. He believes it grew outdated and difficult for audiences with shorter attention spans.

“The competitor in many ways is time,” he said. “It’s a different model that we can’t see how it works in today’s world to justify and maintain an affordable ticket price. So you’ve got all these things working against it.”

Actress AnnaSophia Robb attends Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey presents "Legends" at Barclays Center of Brooklyn in New York City. (Photo: Brian Ach, Getty Images for Ringling Bros.)

When the Feld family first acquired the circus, the show was just under 3 hours. Today, the show is 2 hours and 7 minutes, according to the AP. The longest segment — a tiger act — clocks in at 12 minutes.

Yet it seems the battle over animal rights dealt a fatal blow to the circus. Ringling had been targeted by organizations like PETA who consider forcing animals, such as elephants, to perform cruel.

A battle over elephant acts — a staple of the show since Barnum brought an Asian elephant named Jumbo to America in 1882 — ensued between Feld Entertainment and animal rights activists in court. It went on for 14 years, but in 2014 Feld Entertainment won $25.2 million in settlements, the AP reported. By that point, though, cities such as Los Angeles, Oakland, Calif., and Asheville, N.C., had restrictions on animal acts.

Ringling Bros. eliminating elephant acts

The next year they announced the circus would retire its elephants.

"This is the most significant change we have made since we founded the Ringling Bros. Center for Elephant Conservation in 1995," Kenneth Feld said in a statement in 2015. ". this decision was not easy, but it is in the best interest of our company, our elephants and our customers."

The Center for Elephant Conservation will continue its work, but the lions, tigers, kangaroos, llamas and other exotic animals featured in the shows will be placed in suitable homes, the AP reported.

"Without Ringling Bros., we wouldn’t have the vibrant live entertainment company that we have today," Kenneth Feld wrote on the company website. "Ringling Bros. will always be part of Feld Entertainment, and its spirit will live on in every production and project we do."

How the 45 RPM Single Changed Music Forever

Today marks the 70th anniversary of the 45 rpm single, a format that changed music forever.

When it arrived 70 years ago today, the 45 rpm single, a format that would revolutionize pop music, seemed less radical than simply confusing. On March 15th, 1949, RCA Victor became the first label to roll out records that were smaller (seven inches in diameter) and held less music (only a few minutes a side) than the in-vogue 78s.

The size of 45s alone, combined with the fact that different gear was suddenly required to play them, was enough to perplex the pre-rock music business. &ldquoMy customers don&rsquot know what to buy anymore,&rdquo a record store owner groused to the trade magazine Cashbox that month. &ldquoThey&rsquoll come in, ask for a recording, and then ask me whether or not it can be played on the particular phonogram they have at home.&rdquo More often than not, he said, potential buyers left without forking over any cash.

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Then consider those initial seven RCA releases, which, according to the label&rsquos archives, ranged from classical to kids’ music to country. The one most people will remember is Arthur &ldquoBig Boy&rdquo Crudup&rsquos jumping-bean boogie &ldquoThat&rsquos All Right,&rdquo which became Elvis Presley&rsquos breakout moment in the next decade, but the list also included a Yiddish song, &ldquoA Klein Melamedl (The Little Teacher),&rdquo sung by a cantor. Not quite the stuff of the pop charts at that moment in history. For added head-scratching, each 45 was printed in a different color, from &ldquodeep red&rdquo to &ldquodark blue.&rdquo (Yes, colored vinyl actually existed in the years immediately after World War II.)

But with the release of those titles, and other companies soon entering the market, the singles revolution began. It&rsquos impossible to underestimate the impact of the 45, which was the iTunes 99-cent download or surprise single (à la the Black Keys&rsquo sudden &ldquoLo/Hi&rdquo) of its day. Teenagers of the Fifties took to the portable, less-expensive format one ad at the time priced the records at 65 cents each. One of rock&rsquos most cataclysmic early hits, Bill Haley and the Comets&rsquo &ldquoRock Around the Clock,&rdquo sold 3 million singles in 1955.

In the decades that followed, everyone from the Beatles and the Rolling Stones through Patti Smith, Nirvana and the White Stripes released their first music on 45s. A handful of classic-rock standards, including Bob Dylan&rsquos &ldquoPositively 4th Street&rdquo and the Stones&rsquo &ldquoHonky Tonk Women,&rdquo were only initially released as singles, unattached to albums.

Some singles had picture sleeves or B sides of outtakes. If you flipped over Fleetwood Mac&rsquos &ldquoGo Your Own Way&rdquo in 1977, you&rsquod come across &ldquoSilver Springs,&rdquo the Stevie Nicks landmark that was dumped from Rumours. The following decade, indie fans who snapped up Hüsker Dü&rsquos &ldquoMakes No Sense at All&rdquo found their unlikely but fantastic cover of &ldquoLove Is All Around,&rdquo otherwise known as the Mary Tyler Moore Show theme song, on the flip.

According to the New York Times, the peak year for the seven-inch single was 1974, when 200 million were sold. By the early Eighties, the 45 began dying a slow, humiliating death. The number of jukeboxes in the country declined, boomer rock fans increasingly gravitated toward albums, and the cassette format (and even the wasteful &ldquocassette single&rdquo and &ldquomini-CD&rdquo format) began overtaking vinyl 45s.

The seven-inch never fully recovered, but it nonetheless endures. Sub Pop launched its first Singles Club in 1988, initially shipping a monthly 45 to members that included releases by Nirvana, the Flaming Lips and a shared Sonic Youth&ndashMudhoney venture. A new Sub Pop batch, the first in a decade, arrives next month.

Continuing his attachment to vinyl formats, Jack White revived the 45 on his Third Man label, starting with a Dead Weather single a decade ago. Since then the label has released just over 300 7-inch singles. According to Ben Blackwell, Third Man&rsquos cofounder and head of its vinyl operation, manufacturing the little black records in the digital era requires extra diligence. &ldquoYou have to print new labels and replace metal parts [at the plants] as they diminish,&rdquo he says. &ldquoJukeboxes are still prohibitive.&rdquo

On average, a typical Third Man single sells 2,000 copies &mdash not massive numbers but, Blackwell says, enough to &ldquokeep the doors open.” This year, the label will put out 45s by a batch of new-ish indie bands, including Pow. &ldquoIt&rsquos a low-risk introduction,&rdquo Blackwell says. &ldquoTo me, personally, it seems like the ideal way to consume music.&rdquo

The 78 is history, and the CD is about to join it. But after seven decades, a shaky start and a midlife crisis, the 45 survives, even if just in spirit. Whether in the form of a one-track stream or a now old-school MP3, the idea of a concentrated burst of joy by way of a single song has never died. To paraphrase Pearl Jam, 70 years on, we&rsquore still spinning the black circle.

Second Punic War (218-201 B.C.)

Over the next decades, Rome took over control of both Corsica and Sardinia as well, but Carthage was able to establish a new base of influence in Spain beginning in 237 B.C., under the leadership of the powerful general Hamilcar Barca and, later, his son-in-law Hasdrubal. According to Polybius and Livy in their histories of Rome, Hamilcar Barca, who died in 229 B.C., made his younger son Hannibal swear a blood oath against Rome when he was just a young boy. Upon Hasdrubal’s death in 221 B.C., Hannibal took command of Carthaginian forces in Spain. Two years later, he marched his army across the Ebro River into Saguntum, an Iberian city under Roman protection, effectively declaring war on Rome. The Second Punic War saw Hannibal and his troops–including as many as 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and a number of elephants–march from Spain across the Alps and into Italy, where they scored a string of victories over Roman troops at Ticinus, Trebia and Trasimene. Hannibal’s daring invasion of Rome reached its height at the Battle of Cannae in 216 B.C., where he used his superior cavalry to surround a Roman army twice the size of his own and inflict massive casualties.

After this disastrous defeat, however, the Romans managed to rebound, and the Carthaginians lost hold in Italy as Rome won victories in Spain and North Africa under the rising young general Publius Cornelius Scipio (later known as Scipio Africanus). In 203 B.C., Hannibal’s forces were forced to abandon the struggle in Italy in order to defend North Africa, and the following year Scipio’s army routed the Carthaginians at Zama. Hannibal’s losses in the Second Punic War effectively put an end to Carthage’s empire in the western Mediterranean, leaving Rome in control of Spain and allowing Carthage to retain only its territory in North Africa. Carthage was also forced to give up its fleet and pay a large indemnity to Rome in silver.

History of the Surrounding Area

Leaving Fort Augustus travelling north on the A82 after about a mile (1.6km) you will reach Inchnacardoch Bay. It is in this bay that the only island on Loch Ness is situated. Cherry Island, or to give it its correct name &ldquoEileen Mhuireach&rdquo, means island of Murdoch. Although all that can be seen today is a rocky tree clad island, it is in fact man made and is known as a crannog, which originally covered an area of 160ft by 180ft (48mts by 54 mts). Crannogs date back to prehistoric times and were built to protect people from wild animals, such as bears and wolfs, but it also gave protection from other clans when they came raiding. Large beams of oak were laid on silt constructed Crannogs and oak posts were driven vertically down the outside edge of the beams. Boulders and rocks were placed on top of the oak beams until the island was above water level. Then soil and turf were added it was after this that the buildings were put into place. These would consist of pens for the livestock. Then a large defensive wooden fence would have totally encircled the crannog. Some crannogs had a shallow causeway to the land, where others had a boat to ferry them to and fro. In their time the crannogs would have been a formidable stronghold.

If you get time during your visit you can set sail aboard the Royal Scot whose Loch tour gives more information and an opportunity to see the hotel from the centre of the loch.

Naval/Maritime History 18th of June - Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History

Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 June 1798 - Maltese ship San Giovanni, captured on the stocks in 1798 by the French and launched and commissioned as Athénien.

Athenienne was a 64-gun third-rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy. She was the former Maltese ship San Giovanni , which the French captured on the stocks in 1798 and launched and commissioned as Athénien. The Royal Navy captured her at or prior to the surrender of Valletta, on 4 September 1800, and took her into service as HMS Athenienne. She was wrecked near Sicily, with great loss of life, in 1806.

French career
The Knights of Malta were constructing San Giovanni for their navy at her building site in Valletta when the French occupied Malta. She was launched four months later, and the French took her into service as Athénien. They appointed her to the medical services of the fleet, and in that capacity carried out research on the diseases affecting the French fleet in the Mediterranean.

The British acquired Athénien in connection with the capture of Malta. Although the capitulation only took place in September, Athenian was among the British vessels at Malta that shared in the prize money for the capture of Courageux on 29 March 1800.

The Royal Navy brought Athénien into British service as HMS Athenienne.

A model of an 18th century third-rate of the Order of Saint John, similar to the San Giovanni

British career
In December 1800, Sir Thomas Livingstone assumed command of Athenienne. He then accompanied Rear Admiral Sir John Borlase Warren to the coast of Egypt in search of a French squadron under Admiral Ganteaume, which was east of Sardinia. The French squadron escaped.

Athenienne then joined the squadron under Lord Keith off Alexandria until she sprang a leak and returned to Malta for repairs. In 1850 the Admiralty awarded the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Egypt" to claimants from the crews of the vessels that had served in the navy's Egyptian campaign between 8 March 1801 and 2 September, including Athenian.

Thereafter she was sent to cruise the island of Elba until the Peace of Amiens led to her to being recalled.

Athenian left Gibraltar on 25 August 1802, arrived in Portsmouth on 11 September, and was placed in quarantine. On 24 September she sailed into Portsmouth to be paid off. Her officers and crew were paid off at Portsmouth in October 1802.

Athenienne underwent fitting at Portsmouth between January and March 1804. Captain Francis Fayerman commissioned her there.

Voyage to China (1804-1805)
On 9 June 1804, Athenienne, left St. Helens, Isle of Wight, as escort to nine East Indiamen of the British East India Company bound for China. The Indiamen were Perseverance, Neptune, Taunton Castle, Ceres, Royal Charlotte, Alnwick Castle, True Briton, Arniston, and Cuffnells.

The fleet arrived at Rio de Janeiro around 14-18 August. It then passed the Cape of Good Hope. From here, rather than passing through the Indian Ocean and the Straits of Malacca, the fleet sailed south of Western Australia and through Bass Strait. The objectives were two-fold: to avoid French ships reported to be in the Indian Ocean, and to improve the charting of Bass Strait.

The ships then sailed to Norfolk Island, which was the next rendezvous point after Saint Paul Island, for members that had separated. Taunton Castle had separated in the South Atlantic and although she arrived at Norfolk Island three days after the fleet had sailed on, did not rejoin the rest of the fleet until she arrived at Haerlem Bay, in China.

The arrival of the Athenienne and the East Indiamen at Norfolk Island sowed panic among the colonists there who feared that a French flotilla had arrived.

The fleet arrived at Whampoa in mid-January 1805. The fleet then returned to England via the Straits of Malacca. Arniston, for example, crossed the Second Bar on 14 February, reached Malacca on 21 March and St Helena on 30 June, and arrived at Long Reach on 15 September.

Subsequent service
In October 1805 Captain John Giffard replaced Fayerman. He sailed Athenienne to Gibraltar with stores and supplies for the fleet after the Battle of Trafalgar. on 21 April 1806 Sir Sidney Smith took command off Palermo of a squadron that included Athenienne. She subsequently took part in the reinforcement of the defense of Gaieta (41°13′N 13°34′E), the capture of Capri, and frequent forays to the coast of Calabria.

In the capture of Capri on 12 May Athenien's marines landed and captured the heights, which forced the French to surrender.

In August 1806 Athenienne was in the Mediterranean under Captain Edward Fellowes.

On 16 October 1806, Athenienne sailed from Gibraltar for Malta under the command of Captain Robert Raynsford, with a crew of 470. In the evening of 20 October, she ran aground on a submerged reef, the Esquirques (37°47′N 10°46′E), in the Strait of Sicily.

The crew cut away ship's masts to prevent her rolling on her side, but nevertheless she flooded to the lower deck ports within half an hour, then rolled over. Captain Raynsford had had an improvised raft constructed. Unfortunately two of the ship's boats were swamped when launching and two others deserted the wreck after much trouble the ship's launch was freed and got into the water. Over 100 survivors were crammed into her and she was picked up the following day by a Danish brig. In all, 347 people died, including Captain Raynsford, while 141 men and two women were rescued

HMS Athenienne (1800) - Wikipedia


Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 June 1865 - The Naval Battle of the Riachuelo
is fought on the rivulet Riachuelo (Argentina), between the Paraguayan Navy on one side and the Brazilian Navy on the other. The Brazilian victory was crucial for the later success of the Triple Alliance (Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina) in the Paraguayan War.

The Battle of the Riachuelo was the biggest naval Battle fought by two South American countries and a key point in the Paraguayan War. By late 1864, Paraguay had scored a series of victories in the war on June 11, 1865, however, its naval defeat by the Brazilian Empire on the Paraná River began to turn the tide in favor of the allies.

The Battle of Riachuelo by Victor Meirelles

Battle plan
The Paraguayan fleet was a fraction of the size of Brazil's, even before the battle. It arrived at the Fortress of Humaitá on the morning of June the 9th. Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López prepared to attack at Riachuelo the ships supporting allied land troops. Nine ships and seven cannon-carrying barges, totaling 44 guns, plus 22 guns and two Congreve rocket batteries from river bank located troops, attacked the Brazilian squadron, nine ships with a total of 68 guns. The Paraguayans had planned a surprise strike before sunrise since they were fully aware that the gross of Imperial Brazilian troops would offboard their steamers in order to sleep on land, leaving thus a small garrison of men to guard and watch their fleet. The original plan had been that, under the dark of the night, the Paraguayan steamers would sneak up to the docked Brazilian vessels and board them outright. No confrontation other than the one carried out by the boarding party was planned, and the Paraguayan steamers were only there to provide cover from the inland battling forces.

Description of battle

Brazilian steamers crushing the Paraguayan Navy.

Battle of Riachuelo, stage 1. In this stage, we can see: a) Brazilian fleet goes downstream to meet the Paraguayan fleet b) Amazonas goes out of the fleet for some reasons, and Jequitinhonha follows her. Then Amazonas returns to the fleet, and Jequitinhonha is heavily attacked by the infantry and artillery on the cliff c)Due to the absence of Amazonas and Jequitinhonha, Belmonte' becomes an easy target, is heavily attacked and drifts downstream d) Brazilian fleet then turns around (keeping upstream in order to maintain the stability of the vessels), while Panaiba comes to the aid of Jequitinhonha.

The Paraguayan fleet left the fortress of Humaitá on the night of June 10, 1865, headed to the port of Corrientes. López had given specific orders that they should stealthily approach the docked Brazilian steamers before sunrise and board them, thus leaving the Brazilian ground forces bereft of their navy early on during the war. For this, López sent nine steamers: Tacuarí, Ygureí, Marqués de Olinda, Paraguarí, Salto Guairá, Rio Apa, Yporá, Pirabebé and Yberá under the command of Captain Meza who was aboard the Tacuarí. However, some two leagues after leaving Humaitá, upon reaching a point known as Nuatá-pytá, the engine of the Yberá broke down. After losing some hours in an attempt to fix it, it was decided to continue with only the remaining 8 steamers.

The fleet arrived at Corrientes after sunrise, however, due to a dense fog, the plan was still executable since most, if not all, Brazilian forces were still on land. However, not following López' orders, Captain Meza ordered that instead of approaching and boarding the docked steamers, the fleet was to continue down the river and fire at the camp and docked vessels as they passed by. The Paraguayans opened fire at 9:25 am.

Battle of Riachuelo, Stage 2

Battle of Riachuelo, Stage 3

The Paraguayans passed in a line parallel to the Brazilian fleet and continued downstream. Upon Captain Meza's order, the entire fleet opened fire on the docked Brazilian steamers. The land troops hastily, upon realization that they were under attack, boarded their own ships and began returning fire. One of the Paraguayan steamers was hit in the boiler and one of the "chatas" (barges) was damaged as well. Once out of range, they turned upstream and anchored the barges, forming a line in a very narrow part of the river. This was intended to trap the Brazilian fleet.

Admiral Barroso noticed the Paraguayan tactic and turned down the stream to go after the Paraguayans. However, the Paraguayans started to fire from the shore into the lead ship, Belmonte. The second ship in the line, Jequitinhonha, mistakenly turned upstream and was followed by the whole fleet, thus leaving Belmonte alone to receive the full firepower of the Paraguayan fleet, which soon put it out of action. Jequitinhonha ran aground after the turn, becoming an easy prey for the Paraguayans.

Battle of Riachuelo. The Brazilian corvette Amazonas rams and sinks the Paraguayan Jejuy.

Admiral Barroso, on board the steamer Amazonas, trying to avoid chaos and reorganize the Brazilian fleet, decided to lead the fleet downstream again and fight the Paraguayans in order to prevent their escape, rather than save Amazonas. Four steamers (Beberibe, Iguatemi, Mearim and Araguari) followed Amazonas. The Paraguayan admiral (Meza) left his position and attacked the Brazilian line, sending three ships after Araguari. Parnaíba remained near Jequitinhonha and was also attacked by three ships that were trying to board it. The Brazilian line was effectively cut in two. Inside Parnaíba a ferocious battle was taking place when the Marquez de Olinda joined the attackers.

Barroso, at this time heading upstream, decided to turn the tide of the battle with a desperate measure. The first ship that faced Amazonas was the Paraguarí which was rammed and put out of action. Then he rammed Marquez de Olinda and Salto, and sank a "chata". At this point Paraguari was already out of action. Therefore, the Paraguayans tried to disengage. Beberibe and Araguari pursued the Paraguayans, heavily damaging Tacuary and the Pirabebé, but nightfall prevented the sinking of these ships.

Jequitinhonha had to be put afire by Paraguari and Marquez de Olinda. In the end, the Paraguayans lost four steamers and all of their "chatas", while the Brazilians only lost the Jequitinhonha, coincidentally the ship responsible for the confusion.

Aftermath and consequences
After the battle, the eight remaining Brazilian steamers sailed down river. President López ordered Major José Maria Brúguez with his batteries to quickly move inland to the south to wait for and attack the passing Brazilian fleet. So the fleet had to run the gauntlet. On August 12, Brúguez attacked the fleet from the high cliffs at Cuevas. Every Brazilian ship was hit, and 21 men were killed.

The Paraguarí, which had been rammed by the Amazonas, was set ablaze by the Brazilians however, the ship had a metal hull. A few months later, López ordered the Yporá to retrieve the hull, tow it to the Jejui River and sink it there.[8] Also, under orders from López, one month after the battle, the Yporá returned to the scene and, again under the cover of the night and stealthily so as to not alarm another Brazilian steamer which was in the location, boarded the remains of the Jequitinhonha and stole one of its cannons.

Meza was wounded by a gunshot to the chest on June 11, during the battle. While he did leave the battle alive, he would die eight days later from this wound while at the Humaitá hospital. López, who upon learning of Meza's death said "Si no hubiera muerto con una bala, debia morir con cuatro" (Had he not died from one gunshot, he would have to die from four), gave orders for no officers to attend his burial.

Manuel Trujillo, one of the Paraguayan soldiers that took part in the Riachuelo battle recalls "When we sailed down river on full steam, passing all the Brazilian steamers on the morning of the eleventh, we were all shocked since we knew that all we had to do was approach the steamers and 'all aboard!'". He also recalls that, during the battle, the land troops who had been taken on the steamers in order to board the Brazilian fleet were shouting "Let's approach the steamers! We came in order to board them and not to be killed on deck!".

Barroso had turned the tables by creatively ramming the enemy ships. The Brazilian navy won a decisive battle. General Robles was effectively stopped in Rio Santa Lúcia. The threat to Argentina was neutralized.

Order of battle

Battle of the Riachuelo - Wikipedia


Today in Naval History - Naval / Maritime Events in History
11 June 1913 - General Concha, a General Concha-class Cañonero (gunboat), wrecked

General Concha was a General Concha -class Cañonero (gunboat) or more technically "Third Class non-armored Cruiser" of the Spanish Navy which fought at San Juan, Puerto Rico, during the Spanish–American War.

Technical Characteristics
General Concha was built at the naval shipyard Esteiro at Ferrol in Spain, working order #169. She had an iron hull with bow ram, a single funnel, and a light schooner rig. She was the first ship of a class of four gunboats ordered by Admiral Francisco de Paula Pavía y Pavía during his third term as Ministro de Marina (Minister of the Navy). The design was made in Spain. The keel was laid down on 1 May 1882 and the ship was launched on 28 November 1883. The 600 hp engine with two boilers was constructed by La Maquinista Terrestre y Maritima SA in Barcelona at a final cost of 312,000 pesetas and was constructed directly aboard the ship, after being towed from Ferrol to Barcelona by merchant vessel José Pérez. Bunker coal stock capacity was 70–80 tons having an average consumption of 10 tons per day.

Initially, weaponry was led by three main 120 mm "González Hontoria" guns (a heavy armament for a gunboat, which made her being technically categorised as "Cruiser, Third Class" in spite of being a standard gunboat in all other aspects) and three Nordenfelt-type machine guns, 2 x 25 mm and 1 x 11 mm, but sometime after late 1899 the ordnance was changed to a lighter four rapid-fire 42 mm Nordenfelt guns and two 25 mm Maxim machine guns.

She was named after Spanish Navy Brigadier Don Juan Gutiérrez de la Concha, governor of the intendency of Salta del Tucumán, then part of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, and explorer of the Patagonia in a 1779 expedition. He was executed by the first independent Argentine government in August 1810, near the city of Cruz Alta, Córdoba, along with Santiago de Liniers and other counter-revolutionaries.

Operational history
After becoming fully operational and ready for duty the General Concha was assigned to the then Spanish colony of San Juan, Puerto Rico where she served mainly as a coastal surveillance vessel until the Spanish–American War began in April 1898.

The U.S. Navy soon established a permanent blockade of San Juan on 18 June 1898. On 22 June 1898 General Concha, cruiser Isabel II, and destroyer Terror came out of port to test the blockade, resulting in the Second Battle of San Juan (1898). Auxiliary cruisers USS St. Paul and USS Yosemite moved in, resulting in a short, running gun battle, from which the Spanish quickly broke away. Isabel II and General Concha had a poor top speed of 11 knots Terror made a torpedo run on St. Paul to cover their retreat, and was badly damaged by gunfire from St. Paul, but all three Spanish ships made it back into port at San Juan. Two men had been killed aboard Terror, the only casualties on either side suffered during the battle.

On 28 June 1898, General Concha, Isabel II and gunboat Ponce de León left port again to assist a Spanish blockade runner, the merchant steamer Antonio López, trying to make its way into San Juan's harbor with an important cargo of war supplies. The Yosemite intercepted the Antonio López and attacked it making her run aground in nearby reefs. The General Concha arrived first and engaged the Yosemite, thwarting the efforts of the Americans to disrupt the undergoing salvage operation. The three Spanish warships exchanged long-range gunfire with St. Paul, Yosemite, and cruiser USS New Orleans, with neither side scoring any hits.

After the war the General Concha returned to Spain and her armament was refitted to four rapid-fire 42 mm Nordenfelt guns and two 25 mm Maxim machine guns. She was assigned to the Mediterranean coast of Morocco, as part of the effort to interrupt piracy and arms smuggling by the local cabilas, usually patrolling the area between Melilla and Alhucemas.

On 11 June 1913 General Concha sailed from Almuñécar, Granada in mainland Spain to Alhucemas, a Spanish stronghold in the Moroccan coast. On command of the ship was the Capitán de Corbeta Don Emiliano Castaño Hernández and aboard was (as a passenger) Colonel Basterra. Upon reaching the Moroccan coast the ship encountered dense fog and continued inbound to Alhucemas at slow speed, but lack of sight from coastal references after some time led the crew to misinterpretation of the position of the ship and some five miles out from her destination she violently ran aground near the cove of Busicú at 07:40 local time. This area was de facto controlled by the Bocoy cabila, a group of Morocco rebels fighting the Spaniards.

The ship was trapped among rocks with her bow pointed to the coast, so immediately an anchor was moored from the stern to try to free her, unsuccessfully. A rowboat was lowered to closely evaluate the extent of the hull damage. All bow compartments, the pantry and some engine room sections were flooded, and all rifles stored in the bow armory room were reallocated to the officers' room amidships. The armed boat nr.2 was launched, with eight seamen led by the Alférez de Navío Don Luis Felipe Lazaga with the mission of reaching Alhucemas to communicate the distress of the vessel and also evacuate Colonel Basterra.

The local insurgent forces soon realized the compromised situation of the Spanish vessel and began harassing the crew of the General Concha with spare rifle shots from the nearby cliffs. The crew was forced to fight the attackers and undergo repairs in the damaged bow section at the same time. The bow 120 mm. gun turned out to be inoperative, being partially below waterline. During this first shooting came the first casualties for the crew, Seaman José Piñeiro and Gunner Benítez were hit and died several other men including the Alférez de Navío Don Rafael Ramos Izquierdo y Gener were also wounded. The doctor, Don Manuel Quignon, improvised a "medical room" in a compartment inside the ship. With a rope he wrapped around himself a mattress as improvised protection and came to the outside deck, exposed to fire, dragging all the wounded and dead to the inside of the ship for treatment.

An attempt was made by three men to reach the aft 120 mm. gun to fire back but now the whole outer deck was well covered by abundant rifle fire and two died (2nd Constable Don Pedro Muiños and a Gunner) and the third one (Gunner Corporal Francisco García Benedicto) was badly wounded. The rest of the crew were forced to stay inside the ship.

About 12:30 h. the attackers left their positions and began an assault on the wrecked ship, boarding her by the partially submerged bow section and taking several prisoners here. But in the aft section the Alférez de Navío Ramos had rallied all remaining and able crew (some 20 or 25 men), most armed with rifles and some others with revolvers and even with axes, and shouting hails to Spain and the King they launched a fierce, desperate counterattack as a last chance to maintain control of the ship, forcing the looters in the bow to withdraw from the deck back to their row boats with many casualties. However they took a total of 11 crew men with them. The commander, D. Emiliano Castaño, was hit two times in the neck and the collarbone and died, and Alférez de Navío Izquierdo had to take command of the remainders of ship and crew.

Having now a bargaining element with the captive men of the crew the pirates ceased the attack and withdraw except for some remaining snipers on the cliffs. A few hours later one of the crew prisoners, Sailor Francisco Estensa, was freed and sent back to the wrecked General Concha with instructions from the rebels to surrender the ship in exchange for spare the lives of prisoners and crew, otherwise they would blow the ship with dynamite. The proposition was considered but not accepted nor answered by the Spanish officers, being the ship already damaged beyond repair, so Sailor Estensa joined the ship crew again. Both parties engaged again in an exchange of rifle fire from fixed positions, as the attackers did not make any further attempt to directly assault the boat.

Finally at 17:00 h. Spanish reinforcements arrived (gunboat Lauria and Steamer Vicente Sáenz) and took the crew to safety.

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When asked about the secret of his longevity, Mbah Ghoto told the BBC last year that patience was key and that he had "a long life because I have people that love me looking after me".

A heavy smoker until the end, he outlived four wives, 10 siblings and all his children.

In his village, he was a local hero famous for telling great stories about the wars against Japan and the Dutch colonisers.

Grandson Suryanto said his grandfather was buried on Monday morning in a local cemetery plot he bought several years ago.

A tombstone that had sat beside his house for many years was placed above the grave.

"He didn't ask much. Before he died, he just wanted us, his family, to let him go," his grandson said.

If independently verified, his age would make Grandpa Ghoto older than French centenarian Jeanne Calment, who was 122 when she died, and is considered the longest living human in recorded history.

2014 Junior Sailor of the Quarter

1898 - During the Spanish American War, 1st Lt. Herbert Draper, USMC, First Marine Battalion, raises the U.S. flag for the first time at Camp McCalla, Guantanamo, Cuba. Camp McCalla is named in honor of Cmdr. Bowman H. McCalla, CO of USS Marblehead (C 11) who is also designated to command the new base.

1927 - USS Memphis (CL 13) arrives at Washington, D.C., with Charles Lindbergh and his plane, Spirit of St. Louis, after his non-stop flight across the Atlantic. Later that day, Lindbergh becomes the first person to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross when President Calvin Coolidge presents the award at the Washington Monument grounds. Lindbergh departs on May 20 for the first non-stop flight across the Atlantic, and he lands 33.5 hours later at Le Bourget field, Paris, France.

1944 - F6Fs from TF 58, commanded by Vice Adm. Marc A. Mitscher, begin to intercept and splash Japanese planes in the vicinity of the Mariana Islands, taking the enemy by surprise.

1944 - While operating off the Ryukyu Chain, Japan, two Japanese kamikazes attack USS LCI 122. Lt. Richard M. McCool, Jr. organizes a counter attack, downs one of the kamikazes, and damages the second before it crashes into his vessel. Severely wounded and suffering severe burns, he leads his men to fight the fires and rescue crewmembers. For his "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity" McCool is awarded MOH.

1942 - USS Swordfish (SS 193) sinks Japanese freighter Burma Maru northwest of Pulo Wai in the Gulf of Siam.

1943 - TBF aircraft from Composite Squadron Nine (VC 9) based on board USS Bogue (ACV 9) sink German submarine (U 118) west by north of the Canary Islands.

1957 - More than 100 ships from 17 nations take part in the International Naval Review at Hampton Roads, Va. in honor of the 350th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, Va.

1900 - During the Boxer Rebellion, the International Relief Expedition turns back near Anting, China, and moves to Sanstun after the Tientsin-Peking railroad is cut by the Boxers, whose anti-foreign mantra grew to burning homes and killing foreigners as well as Chinese Christians. In total, 56 Marines and Sailors receive the Medal of Honor for their actions during the Rebellion.

1913 - Lt. j.g. P.N.L. Bellinger sets an American altitude record for seaplanes when he reaches 6,200 feet in a Curtiss (A 3) aircraft.

1939 - USS Saratoga (CV 3) and USS Kanawha (AO 1) complete a two-day underway refueling test off the coast of southern Calif., demonstrating the feasibility of refueling carriers at sea where bases are not available.

1943 - USS Frazier (DD 607) sinks Japanese submarine (I 9), east of Sirius Point, Kiska, Aleutian Islands.

The Un-Liftable Inch Dumbbell: Can You Handle Its Challenge?

Athletes are always looking for a new challenge. Well, there may not be a bigger challenge out there than the Inch Dumbbell. What is the Inch Dumbbell? It’s a piece of weightlifting equipment that has over a century of history behind it. Why haven’t you heard of it before? To put it simply—because there’s a 99.9 percent chance you can’t lift it. That’s not an insult.

See, the Inch Dumbbell is not your ordinary dumbbell. It was specifically designed to be un-liftable for even the brawniest of meatheads—despite the fact its actual weight isn’t all that intimidating. Over the last hundred years, the Inch Dumbbell’s legend has grown with every muscle-bound beast who’s failed its challenge. STACK talked to J.L. Holdsworth, the owner of The Spot Athletics and a professional grip competitor who’s mastered the Inch Dumbbell, to learn more about this mythical piece of equipment.

History Lesson

The Inch Dumbbell has a long, illustrious history. The name comes not from the dumbbell’s dimensions, but its inventor. Thomas Inch was an english strongman born in 1881. He held the title of “Britain’s Strongest Man” throughout his career. From a young age, he collected thick handled “challenge dumbbells.” He included these dumbbells in his act as he toured around England and other countries challenging spectators and other strong men to lift them.

In about 1906, he unveiled what is now known as the famous Inch Dumbbell—a thick handled dumbbell which he claimed no man but him could lift. Inch took the insurmountable dumbbell on tour with him, challenging the top strongmen and courageous spectators. As legend has it, no man was able to successfully lift it—except for Inch himself, of course.

Due to the fact other strongmen from around the world were thought to be at least equal in strength to Inch, it was suspected that trickery was involved. He was accused of altering the dumbbell and using a modified one when he lifted it. Even though he passed away in 1963, the Inch Dumbbell is still used as a benchmark of incredible strength. The original Inch Dumbbell is said to be in the possession of Kim Wood, a legendary figure in the strength training community who served as the NFL’s first official strength coach. But many replicas have been crafted with the same dimensions as the famous dumbbell, and it is with these that modern competitors test themselves.

The Dimensions

An Inch Dumbbell weighs 172 pounds. That’s heavy, but not so heavy that a professional strong man should struggle with it. The key to the Inch Dumbbell’s challenge is the handle, which has a diameter of roughly 2.5”. It has been compared to the thickness of a soda can. If it wasn’t hard enough to just pick up a normal 172-pound dumbbell, the insanely thick handle makes it nearly impossible.

The Challenge

The basic Inch Dumbbell challenge requires you to successfully Deadlift it with one hand. All you’ve got to do is grab it, stand up with it and successfully lock it out. Doesn’t sound too hard, right?

Well, picking up the Inch Dumbbell is really a test of grip and hand strength more than general lower- or upper-body strength.

“The Inch Dumbbell is an awesome test of thick bar grip strength. I own one and have it at my gym. They’re hard to come by, but it was well worth it. If you can pick it up, you can train at my gym for free,” Holdsworth says. Pretty sweet deal, right? All you’ve got to do is pick it up and you get a free gym membership. But Holdsworth can make such an offer in confidence because he knows how difficult beating the Inch Dumbbell really is.

How to Beat it

Holdsworth’s first experience with the Inch Dumbbell was extremely rare.

“The first time I saw an Inch Dumbbell was at an NSCA conference,” he says. “I had never seen it before, and I saw several people play with it but no one could pick it up. I walked up and I picked it up on my first try, not even knowing how hard of a feat I had accomplished. I’ve always had great grip strength from chopping wood as a kid and wrestling, but now I know there is technique to it.” Yes, Holdsworth is probably one of only a handful of people in the world who picked up the Inch Dumbbell on their first try.

Most of the technique on lifting the Inch Dumbbell centers around arresting its rotation. The most common failure in the Inch Dumbbell challenge (aside from not even getting it off the ground) is the dumbbell simply rolling out of the participants hand. Due to the thickness of the bar, it’s very difficult to keep it from rotating. Once it begins rotating, all 172 pounds of it builds momentum. Before you know it, the dumbbell has ripped from your grasp and landed on the floor with a thud. Preventing rotation requires phenomenally strong finger, thumb and wrist strength.

One technique involves tilting the dumbbell so the globe comes into contact with your thumb as you lift it. This friction can help prevent it from rotating and prying free from your grip. In response to this technique, competitors have begun lifting Inch Dumbbells with empty soda cans placed on top of it. This shows they aren’t tilting the bell as they lift it, proving their grip strength is insanely strong.

So technique is involved—but the most important requirement is undoubtedly raw, steel-shattering grip strength. “There are ways to edge an advantage out so you can hold on to it for longer, but at the end of the day there is a big element of sheer grip strength that goes into it. I’ve seen many people who can Deadlift 800 pounds or more fail to pick it up,” Holdsworth says.

The Inch Dumbbell plays a role in many sanctioned grip competitions. The Mighty Mitts, a premier grip competition held annually at the Arnold Fitness Expo, requires competitors to pick up an Inch Dumbbell in each hand and then perform a Farmer’s Walk. Even getting them off the ground and walking a couple of feet is a huge accomplishment. One of Holdsworth’s proudest strength moments came when he was able to farmer’s walk two Inch Dumbbells an incredible distance of 25 yards. “Most people can’t pick one up. To pick up one in each hand and walk with them that far was an amazing day,” Holdsworth says.

Perhaps one of the most impressive feats ever accomplished with an Inch Dumbbell occurred when Mark Henry, former World’s Strongest Man and current professional wrestler, successfully cleaned and jerked it.

Get a Grip

You probably shouldn’t go out and buy an Inch Dumbbell right this second. For one, they’re going to run you about 450 bucks plus another 200 for the shipping. Two, who are you kidding? You won’t be able to lift the Inch Dumbbell yet. Unless you want the world’s most permanent paper weight, you’re best served training your grip with things already in your gym while you work your way up to the Inch.

Developing a strong grip won’t just help you lift really heavy stuff—it’ll make you a better athlete. Grip strength plays a role in almost every sport. Swinging a bat, catching a pass, battling for a puck, shooting for a double-leg takedown—all of these skills depend on your grip strength.

Holdsworth recommends training your grip strength using short, heavy intervals as opposed to long endurance work. “Most people do long holds with a dumbbell but no one seems to do heavy grip work. Timed holds are endurance work, not absolute strength work. It’s like the difference between doing 25 Push-Ups or benching 500 pounds,” Holdsworth says.

Think about the type of grip strength you usually need in your sport. Do you typically need to grab and squeeze something for longer than 5 or 10 consecutive seconds? Not really. You should make an effort to do heavy grip work for short periods of time. Here are some exercises Holdsworth recommends for young athletes.

Operation Pelikan

Karl Dönitz was a German admiral during the Nazi era who briefly succeeded Adolf Hitler as the German head of state in 1945. As Supreme Commander of the Navy since 1943, he played a major role in the naval history of World War II. He was convicted of war crimes at the Nuremberg trials in 1946.

The Kriegsmarine was the navy of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. It superseded the Imperial German Navy of the German Empire (1871�) and the inter-war Reichsmarine (1919�) of the Weimar Republic. The Kriegsmarine was one of three official branches, along with the Heer and the Luftwaffe of the Wehrmacht, the German armed forces from 1933 to 1945.

The I-400-class submarine Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) submarines were the largest submarines of World War II and remained the largest ever built until the construction of nuclear ballistic missile submarines in the 1960s. The IJN called this type of submarine Sentoku type submarine . The type name was shortened to Toku-gata Sensuikan . They were submarine aircraft carriers able to carry three Aichi M6A Seiran aircraft underwater to their destinations. They were designed to surface, launch their planes, then quickly dive again before they were discovered. They also carried torpedoes for close-range combat.

Almost every country in the world participated in World War II. Most were neutral at the beginning, but only relatively few nations remained neutral to the end. The Second World War pitted two alliances against each other, the Axis powers and the Allied powers the U.S having served 16 million men, Germany serving 13 million, the Soviet Union serving 35 million and Japan serving 6 million. With millions serving in other countries, an estimated 300 million soldiers saw combat. A total of 72 million people died with the lowest estimate being 40 million dead and the highest estimate being 120 million dead. The leading Axis powers were Nazi Germany, the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Japan while the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union, and China, were the "Big Four" Allied powers.

USS Sapelo (AO-11) was a Patoka-class fleet replenishment oiler of the United States Navy. Laid down on 3 May 1919 for the United States Shipping Board by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co., Newport News, Virginia, the ship was launched on 24 December 1919, transferred to the Navy on 30 January 1920, and commissioned on 19 February 1920, Comdr. W. R. Kennedy, USNRF, in command.

Operation Pastorius was a failed German intelligence plan for sabotage inside the United States during World War II. The operation was staged in June 1942 and was to be directed against strategic American economic targets. The operation was named by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, chief of the German Abwehr, for Francis Daniel Pastorius, the leader of the first organized settlement of Germans in America.

The American Theater was a theater of operations during World War II including all continental American territory, and extending 200 miles (320 km) into the ocean.

The United States Air Forces Southern Command is an inactive Major Command of the United States Air Force. It was headquartered at Albrook Air Force Base, Canal Zone, being inactivated on 1 January 1976.

USS Inch (DE-146) was an Edsall-class destroyer escort in service with the United States Navy from 1943 to 1946. She was scrapped in 1974.

USS Middlesex County (LST-983) was an LST-542-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named after counties in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Virginia, she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

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Operation Elster was a German espionage mission intended to gather intelligence on U.S. military and technology facilities during World War II. The mission commenced in September 1944 with two Nazi agents sailing from Kiel, Germany on the U-1230 and coming ashore in Maine on November 29, 1944. The agents were William Colepaugh, an American-born defector to Germany, and Erich Gimpel, an experienced German intelligence operative. They spent nearly a month living in New York City, expending large amounts of cash on entertainment, but accomplishing none of their mission goals.

The First Ostend Raid was the first of two attacks by the Royal Navy on the German-held port of Ostend during the late spring of 1918 during the First World War. Ostend was attacked in conjunction with the neighbouring harbour of Zeebrugge on 23 April in order to block the vital strategic port of Bruges, situated 6 mi inland and ideally sited to conduct raiding operations on the British coastline and shipping lanes. Bruges and its satellite ports were a vital part of the German plans in their war on Allied commerce (Handelskrieg) because Bruges was close to the troopship lanes across the English Channel and allowed much quicker access to the Western Approaches for the U-boat fleet than their bases in Germany.

German submarine U-153 was a Type IXC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine built for service during World War II. The keel for this boat was laid down on 12 September 1940 at the DeSchiMAG AG Weser yard in Bremen, Germany as yard number 995. She was launched on 5 April 1941 and commissioned on 19 July under the command of Korvettenkapitän Wilfried Reichmann.

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The history of Colombia during World War II began in 1939. Although geographically distant from the main theaters of war, Colombia played an important role in World War II because of its strategic location near the Panama Canal, and its access to both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Colombia also experienced major changes to its military and society, due to increased influence from the United States, but it was also able to maintain its sovereignty throughout the war, as well as avoid sending troops into battle.

Due to the American-controlled Panama Canal cutting across the center of the country, Panama was of major strategic importance to the Allied war effort, as well as the most important strategic location in Latin America during World War II. It provided an invaluable link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that was vital to both commerce and the defense of the Western Hemisphere. Therefore, the defense of the Canal Zone was the United States' chief concern in the American Theater. Panama never received Lend-Lease assistance, but in return for the rights to build military infrastructure within Panamanian territory, the United States undertook large-scale public works projects, which did much to modernize the country and boost the economy.

The history of Latin America during World War II is important because of the significant economic, political, and military changes that occurred throughout much of the region as a result of the war. The war caused significant panic in Latin America over economics as a large portions of economy of the region depended on the European investment capital, which was shut down. Latin America tried to stay neutral but the warring countries were endangering their neutrality. Most countries used propaganda to turn the neutral countries to their side, while Berlin wanted Latin America neutral. In order to better protect the Panama Canal, combat Axis influence, and optimize the production of goods for the war effort, the United States through Lend-Lease and similar programs greatly expanded its interests in Latin America, resulting in large-scale modernization and a major economic boost for the countries that participated.

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Watch the video: De la part de Sab Ben pour Sini Inch ALLA


  1. Pelops

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  2. Arazil

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  3. Seamus

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  4. Cephalus

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  5. Bokhari

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  6. Tojin

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